#1159 - Neil deGrasse Tyson

The Joe Rogan Experience #1159 - Neil deGrasse Tyson

August 22, 2018

Neil deGrasse Tyson is an astrophysicist, cosmologist, author, and science communicator.

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hey everybody how's it going out there and listen Earl and

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I'm touring I'm doing a lot of touring and one of things I'm doing is I was supposed to be in Toronto at the Ricoh Coliseum on September 29th I'm still going to be in Toronto if I'm not canceling but there is a strike in Toronto there is some sort of a strike at the venue and because of this we had to move to another venue because I didn't want the show to be shut down we moved from the Ricoh Coliseum to what used to be the Air Canada Centre now called the Scotiabank Arena it's it's still a union place but it's under a different Union contract and they are not under strike so

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because that we have to move cuz otherwise it is there is a real potential that if they don't resolve the strike by then the show be shut down so the good news is that the show is sold out so if you have tickets the tickets will be honored they're going to email you all the details I just wanted to alert people as many times as possible but the good news is 1,200 extra seats are now going to be available because this is a bigger place okay so that's September 29th at the Formerly Known Air Canada Centre now it's called the Scotiabank Arena that's where the show in Toronto is going to be my friends Joe Rogan. Com for all details and I'll let you guys know the moment that tickets are available cuz right now it is sold out this episode of podcast is brought to you by Black Rifle coffee that is what I'm drinking right now I'm hopped up on it's delicious they make fantastic delicious tasting coffee in their founded by former Special Operations vets who combined their love of coffee with the

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and don't forget when you download the cash app enter the reward code Joe Rogan all one word you will receive $5 in the cash app will send $5 to Justin Brands fight for the Forgotten charity haha my guess today is probably the most famous astrophysicist of all time it's right there. Going on a great guy a brilliant man and incredible science educator and just one of my all-time favorite people that I know please give it up for Neil deGrasse Tyson

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The Joe Rogan Experience

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why aren't there flying cars

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you just jumping right in you don't say hi you don't say how's the wifey how's the wife and kids buddy man how's life how's your boy called it the astrophysics for people in a hurry that's one of the New York Times Best Sellers for 67 weeks that's pretty intense if that's that's a lot for any book much less for a science book and so that tells me while all these Trump books or wafting in and out this is Bob doing like a quart like a cork on the ocean waves as the book of The Moment by the Praises Trump or criticize or criticise ISM come in and off of that list to this tells me that there is this unserved hunger that people have there's a curiosity that this is serving and it's

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astrophysics for people in a hurry that's kind of a that's very purposefully juxtapose it's like neurosurgery in 4 easy steps you know if you saw a book with that title do you have to pick it up under what's going on. To kiss your ass again but I will say this about you and I think it's important you make learning stuff about astrophysics fun and that's what's missing you know it's not that people don't like to be educated that they don't like to learn these don't want to be bored that's a perceptive point because you think of the image we have of let's say you're in a school where most people don't go to college if you're in high school and then last day of school comes what do people do they toss their papers in the air as they run down the steps what's the rock song

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attitude must mean the school didn't train you to embrace curiosity that learning was a chore and now the chores are over so I think the education system needs an adjustment forget whether or not you go to college cuz you can spend more years not in school than in school even if you do go to college what you want I think her lifelong Learners lifelong curiosity where once you're trained and and and your curiosity is stimulated we all had his children your children don't need to be talked to be curious they are curious to the point of destruction of whatever it is they touch or what is this egg on the counter what is this glass what is this plate what's under a rock what happens when I pull a leg off a daddy long enough they are experimenting with the world we don't think of it that way but that's what it is they're all

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born scientist and I say this often you spend the first years of a child's life teaching it to walk and talk and you spend the rest of his life tell her to shut up and sit happens if this this is the wrong combination So speaking as an educator I think a missing component of school is at is at the teachers at the curriculum I don't know but when you get out of school you should say to yourself damn I want to learn more it's almost universally accepted to that that's when you're learning ends when you get out of college it's over do you say when the job market shifts you're not ready for work cuz you don't know how to think you don't know how to learn ride-ons the difference in the workplace between the person who gets an assignment is a tie-dye Joey Janet I need you to do this that's not in my job description I'm not trained for this kind of person in the workplace another kind of person but here's a new task I need you to do wow I've never seen that before right

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Brian two completely different species of human being and what the world needs more of is like the the second case where you take a new task and you say wow I got to learn how to learn on my own I'll ask people who know more you just you just embrace the act of learning to satisfy your curiosity and I think this book is capturing that in the public something 60 how many weeks is 67 weeks

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so you're alive I can't can I say that you can tell me shyt I could say it okay I can I sync your podcasts a great time as well the success of your podcast in the success of a lot of science podcast up I love of science curious podcast stuff to blow your mind is one that I really enjoy I really love Radiolab they've always got to look really interesting science wow and I love Chuck Nice shout-out to check 9. You like we wasn't all that check he's great I like what you're doing is you're making learning interesting and that's why it's so fun it's it's it's it's there's excitement to it need bring a comedian like Chuck on with you things get silly but they're also the curious and you getting these experts and everyone's talking about these various subjects and and as you know not only your

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self as an Exemplar of this. Stand up comedians are some of the smartest people in the world they have it that the Avenue women's Puffer that a little serious gas and for sure and there where they notice things that you don't know they see the same things you do and get to shape it in a way you never thought possible and then you end up laughing at other things that yourself was it your idea to do your show with stand up so so to what we have been there several of us who created this concept and we there's hella Matos is one of the partners and then another one who's never left but

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what was in that picture I get his name in a minute of us who David Campbell is his name the three of us got together and applied for a National Science Foundation Grant what we said was there programs out there that serve people who already know they like science

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but who serves the people who don't know they like science or better yet the people who know they don't like science there's nothing for them because they've already rejected it did not going to tune in to Science Friday cuz they don't like Science Guy on NPR right so what we thought was supposed to be bringing a celebrity we've all that the pop culture draw this is a pop-culture scaffold we bringing the scaffold and clad the scaffold with science because whatever the celebrity does it doesn't matter there's going to be science in that person's life we had the guy who portrayed Gollum Lord of the Rings

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but their ass like the technology necessary to portray going as a lot he portray that live that was not some Latin later animation he is live and he's got his whole body wired up for this and he is that voice and he is portraying it so so whatever it is that you have done that you do there is such as evidence that science is everywhere you're not going to be you can't say I'm done with science let me sell my textbook and move on to other things as practically anything else you do has been touched by science and so StarTalk is a celebration of that and it jumps species and so now we're on TV now all right this is a TV show on National Geographic Channel star talk and then since you started this by the way that I didn't come here to talk about you would you started this is our fourth year in a row where were nominated for an Emmy for Outstanding information

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programming are you going to keep doing Cosmos too though so so I have one week remaining out of what 7D shoot days to finish shooting Cosmos possible worlds premiering spring 2019 that's the third installment if you trace the first one to Carl Sagan back in 1984 I use your segment on wolves on how wolves became Dogs showed it to my kids and the Little Wheel spinning like what and what you didn't see it I'm sitting at the at the campfire and this is in the snowy environment I got wolves walking around me there on these fishing wires

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cuz they are not dogs right okay they they they want correct it's like should I rip his neck out now or later when I'm more hungry do not eat there's no eye contact with them because they do don't they don't see you as anything other than something that could possibly eat and so you can interact with them the way you would with ordinary dogs on these fishing your high tension fishing wire that you can't see against the snow and they're like hooting and hollering around me as I described in the name of that show is and the Wolf shall become the shepherd yeah I friended a commercial with wolf and this is commercial was running up this mountain in the wolf is there and at the end of the commercial they had to get the wolf to snarl so what the trainer does is he shows the wolf some meat and then he pulled the meat away from the wolf

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and the Wolf snarls and they're like in in the commercials over after that like I did There's No Going to be near the wall like that switch is turned on yea and it's it's crazy like once that thing snarled everybody just backed off and the trainer let her know like once I get to this point we're done like there's there's no more and that think like okay everybody were done the original the privilege of hosting in 2014 and 2019 written by Andrew Ian and she's the the Widow of Carl Sagan butt and highly enlightened and so most of their to the the the the soul energy if you will the what makes Cosmos distinct from other

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from other documentaries where your soda sitting there learning you put your thinking cap on your learning cap on in Cosmos it's your feeling cap you not only learning you're also feeling the science and its relationship to you to civilization to the world to the universe and her infusion of this she's a highly scientifically literate right producer and so I just give a shout out to her just working with her husband at the light is Cosmos on Apple TV or 2 premiere on Fox and then went internationally on Nat Geo its and went to Netflix so it but I think this run of Netflix is going to drop until the next one comes in I think they want to clear the clear the landing zone for the next Cosmos Netflix is it available for anyone to get right now right now I should be I haven't checked that's great cause I have it on my DVR and I'm scared

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delete it so now I have like 6% ER looks like what's that Morgan Freeman show through the Through the Wormhole it's it's an opportunity to be entertained and learned which I think is what everybody misses or and I think it that's that's what's missing in most public education people are bored and you take these kids with so much energy and then you make them sit still and watch something that's not even remotely stimulating by a person doesn't really care to be there right right and they know they know this they know this into if not explicitly the enthusiasm is absent yeah they could feel it there and just it's the worst way to learn it's the the worst way and it's so hard to skate once you get out of

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system it takes forever for a lot of these people just get their excitement about education back don't I say when I dress teachers we all by the way I'll do this right now in this room that we have only three of us but let's let's take a show of hands in your life with all the teachers you've ever had and every class you've ever taken how many had like a singular influence on who and what you became give me a number it's going to be I'm betting it's 5 or fewer probably more like 3 year for teachers your number

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well this was the one that I talked about on your show the last time I saw you guys for coming out to start my pleasure it was a science teacher that I had when I believe I was in 7th grade and told me that if you really want to hurt your brain look up and recognize the fact that that goes on forever that this is infant and then just think about what that means infinite that there really is no end to it. But how many teachers such as that were so influential on you he might be the one for me it's like two and a half and I've had scores of teachers yeah okay a hundred teachers at least so what I tell teachers is be that teacher to your students we've all had those teachers be that teacher and in every case it wasn't because the topic was something you knew in advance you would like it's because their energy for sharing your passion and love for the subject

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palpable I just spilled out of him and went into course through your veins in your arteries and you walk out of there thinking wow that was the most interesting thing I've ever done in my life you don't even care what you get on a test after that because you got touched and you became enlightened participant and that exercise in that exploration it's so hard for them to even get kids attention so yeah this is some ratchet latches going on for that could be in some places have the energy of the teachers gives maintaining order I think the success of your book the success of your show your podcast and many of those other really intelligent podcasts are showing of there's an appetite for the stuff out there yeah and I'm delighted to be a servant of that Curiosity and this brought this just cuz it's not even out yet this is your hearing like now live this is it your live where to buy

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what is this accessory to war about this this is like another but I just this is coming out in 3 weeks is this about the bass War acessory to war the unspoken alliance between astrophysics and the military

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if you're in a hurry. Do not buy this product this is not this is not what this is not an Impulse items at the checkout line this is you got this is this is all about by the way we know what role the physicist plays in war that fizzes his makes the bomb invented the bong the chemist perfect Napalm the biologist

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weaponizers Anthrax well we sit at the end of a telescope and wait for photons to cross the universe and enter out detector and we go into conferences in argue about them so there is no obvious connection between what we do and military strength hegemony dominance empire-building it's just not obvious that's why the subtitle the unspoken Alliance it's not a secret it's just this not there isn't no it's there but it's not nobody's talking about it do you realize I'll just give an example okay if you needed more reasons to think the Columbus was a dick okay let me add 1/2 it between us when we were kids and today I do have something

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Smiley redeeming to offer about Columbus if you have the time I just want to start off with that on his third voyage he's in by the times of his third voyage he'd already planted enough Spanish flag that Spain had already begun to set up governments and infrastructures in these places that he had found basically Concord and so-so in one of the places I visited it's in the book accurate with the thing is Hispaniola one of the island today he has to get back is his third voice 1503 or 1504 to get back to Spain he doesn't have enough resources not enough food for his crew so he asked the natives would you please give us some of your stock that you have collected from your farming now this particular group of Native only makes exactly the amount of food they need

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need to tie to the next crop they don't have Surplus so they said no we don't have Surplus sorry Columbus knew that one week hence coincidentally it was going to be a total lunar eclipse with a moon in its orbit around Earth enters Earth's Shadow the full moon enters Earth's Shadow and disappears and that the geometry of that event it's just a simple lunar eclipse with a geometry so that some light passes around Earth Earth's atmosphere and takes on sunset colors that leach into Earth's Shadow giving the moon if you can see it at all deep red Amber hue

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almost the color of blood Columbus said he knew about this cuz he had read the tables the eclipse tables all right we have eaten enough about the solar system at the time to when we got that okay actually but then it was just the known world with horses in the middle of the known universe. He says to the natives if you do not give us food my God which is more powerful than your God will make the moon disappear and it will turn blood red that will happen in one week you have one week to comply some of them was skeptical

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sure enough right on cue the moon begins to disappear according to that that is a famous would cut you got this those viewing the video this is a famous would cut and noticed the natives bowing to him and he stands probably cuz he knows the science he knows the astronomy he knew this and so he invokes this to dominate people would not get scientifically literate and within seconds of this beginning they bring them all the resources he wants and he gets but we don't know what happened you know I'm back at the island where the people survive the winter but he got back to the island Universe has been invoked in it almost one of the National Labs day today as basically since their Inception are charged with

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tracking the nuclear arsenal of the United States are nuclear-powered the nukes that would go into nuclear weapons they think about this you realize they hire astrophysicists always working there you know why because there's a room there two rooms I mean I'm simplifying this was basically there two rooms adjacent to one another and a computer between the two of them the most powerful computers in the world and there is code running on those computers that calculates the energy yield of hydrogen Fusion

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that's exactly what an astrophysicist cares about when stars blow up okay the sun is undergoing nuclear fusion right now and that's how it's making energy and when did when I'm at Stars dies they explode as supernovae this is a natural thing going on than you ever in the universe on the other side that's a classified room they're calculating yields of hydrogen bonds and they have lunch together and compare notes the government doesn't always have the best people but if you hire some of the best people to do whatever it is they want and there calculation happened to relate to a military project there you have a two-way street in progress why do you think the Hubble telescope the issues notwithstanding which will ultimately fixed when it was first launch of the Hubble Telescope launched

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by the military

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looking down that's the model for the telescope had already been conceived and built and I was operating then we said we want one of those okay but we don't know that's not public that this is going on we design with the Telco gets designed as the benefit of previous versions of it having been used successfully but looking down and we look up this is a perennial two-way street of astronomy in the Old Days Inn in modern times astrophysics preventing you from eating raw don't worry about me okay fine Galileo telescope he learned that it had just been invented in the Netherlands the Dutch word for Opticians right so they invented the telescope and microscope within a couple of years of one another just transform science when did they invent the eyeglass the reading glasses

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but I don't I don't know when did Wheel advanced was putting two lenses in line with one another sounds trivial in modern times but that was a huge leap conceptually and what you've accomplished and it's so doing depending on how you curve them and how you grind them grinded the shape of those lenses you would get a microscope were telescope and and We're Off to the Races that's basically the birth of modern science as we now think of it and and and and conduct it because you said yourself my senses I don't trust them to be the full record of what's going on in front of me you pull out a microscope oh my gosh leeuwen hoek you got the microscope guy drop a pond water puts it under his microscope just to think to do this it's just water why do you think that's something interesting to do he said I wonder he was curious he puts it under and sees little what he described as animalcules happily a swimming animal

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animalcules he's like the amoebas and paramecia it is reports on this to to the scientific authorities and pimple he shouldn't I say we think you might have had too much gin before you wrote this lipid

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why would anyone believe this that this entire creatures and entire universe of creature thriving in a drop of pond water and so the way science works is one report does not make it true you need verification they sent people to the Netherlands to verify his results in there was the birth of microscopy and then they look at everything cells that you don't do need vocabulary to describe what you're now seeing that was the journey down small then the journey went up big and Galileo perfects the telescope he looks slow I see craters mountains valleys on the moon the Sun have spots Venus goes through phases this became the Corpus of evidence for earth going around the Sun in support of Copernicus idea the earth going around the Sun my point is what was the second thing he did with his telescope he telephone

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he contacted the Doge of Venice invited into the Clock Tower and said look at what this instrument can do for you as we look out into the Lagoon you can identify a ship's intentions Friend or Foe by its flag 10 times farther away than you can with the unaided eye

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Venice bought a boatload of these telescopes in the service of their military defense and this was a source of money to Galileo now he could go look at the universe this is been a two-way street ever since people have looked up an accounting of that this is its and it goes on and on the first x-ray machines for airports you're old enough to remember why would they put in because of hijackings to Cuba basically they were armed hijackings of airplanes of American carriers to Cuba and Congress are we got to do something about that by the way there's a company in Boston called American Science & Engineering that was building an x-ray detector small enough to put on a satellite to observe the universe in x-rays

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and because no one has visible light but not x-ray that's a branch of the electromagnetic spectrum we think if they're black holes out there their region surrounding them will give us x-rays it's a new window on the universe and then they said oh my gosh there's a call for x-ray machines at airport we've got the technology that we perfected to put in a freaking satellite so the technology for those ones you walk through the airport initially came out yes yes there was a two-way street there was oh my gosh we need this for security oh my God we would we were using let's let's reply that technology to these detectors that's been a lot of the stuff with the Space Program write a lot of the stuff that they devised for use on the space station and so many other Technologies of trickle their way down in the rain and even some simple things cuz people say why is my money up there and we should be spending it down here but there's an interesting fact here that is almost never discussed

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the people who who think about the universe and study of the universe are hugely creative and the creative energies cannot be prescribed you can't go to a create you might but I don't know that you'll get there a maximum creativity I need you to invent a cure for cancer right now use that really is I'll try but the greatest discoveries the greatest the greatest of these comes from a cross pollination of interest that people have that where they were engaged because they were interest interested just for the sake of being interested to watch what here's an example the space shuttle it it's it's a glider when it lands okay it's got no engines got flaps there's a little bit of brakes in the tires but that's about it when it comes in

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okay how do you make sure the thing that stays on track because they kept drifting and Crosswinds in this sort of thing and so he said why don't we Groove the road so the rubber on the road since the robber can online with the cruise and stay in a straight line because Robert doesn't slide well when you have doesn't slide sideways right easily on cruise when they realize how effective that was it's now put on off ramps to freeways if there's a freeway off-ramp it's a little tight not quite banked well enough it's going to be grooved check it out next time and you can say well okay that's pretty simple low Tech solution why don't we why couldn't we just discovered that on our own without the 20 billion dollar years space agency called Matteson

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but you didn't you didn't

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how tools cordless high torque power tools were invented to service satellites in orbit by NASA because you can't of plug it into a hundred twenty volt socket when you're floating in space so the engineers said how we going to solve this problem let's make a high-torque so now that is the only way you're buying a tool today is the is the cordless variety all construction sites that I'm looking for a power outlet for these things

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so why did we invent this without the 20 Bellino's make sure you didn't you weren't you didn't think about it you said all I can plug it in this is great you're not even thinking what you need so yes they're all of these applications but but I don't think that's a good reason to do it but I don't think it's the best of the best reasons are my gosh don't you want to keep dreaming don't want to keep looking into the future that would be ideal but that's not Tractive to people are spending tax dollars when comes attack Towers people get super pragmatic and they go why do we need to go to Mars know what we need to do is take care of this and pay for that and we at with the deficit and the budget and Beyond so you don't mess is budget Today Is 4/10 of 1%

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of the federal budget so if you take a dollar bill and imagine that your tax dollar and you can like cut it to whatever percent you want so let's cut for tense of 1% off of The Edge that doesn't get you into the ink you're still in the the white border around it I even notice it so my point is most of the people who say don't spend it here spend it there

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they think NASA it has more budget that it actually does they just think they're asking how much is a 10% 5 % you know several percent know which one half of one percent so if you going to tell me that if you can take that for tense of 1% and spend it in these other problems and solve them I would say yeah go right ahead but is this is this where you really want to pull the money from when it's the only thing that God has us thinking about tomorrow is just thinking about a future but forgot like you that's super important but for a guy who lives in Cleveland who doesn't give a shit about science no excuse me that's like the person who says okay I don't need space program why don't I have my cell phone and I have the Weather Channel and I know any funny I need this is

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you're using GPS satellites to understand where you are on this Earth You to notice me where Grandma's house is when you pull up the GPS Wi-Fi who is Hedy Lamarr I didn't know that yes yes you did actress 1941 yes she did Mark II yeah but I took it would take decades to really realize at a craft GPS is launched by the military and it's now hundreds of billions of dollars worth of the American economy thriving on this space application but it was a military intent and it was to navigate

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the surface of the Earth to navigate and the first Gulf War was the first big use of space Assets in the conduct of military operations even when Hedy Lamarr created it with another scientist the idea behind it was for encoded encoded transcriptions are encoded information during the war while so that's a big challenge how do you encode information that's by the way the future this might might come from its I still not clear the jury still out and they're sort of opposing views on this but you know you've heard my Quantum entangled particles where I can create a pair of particles that know about one another and now they separated in space and in time and if you

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observe that other particles instantly changes the state of the particle back the other particle its back where I am and by the way that they communicate instantaneously faster than the speed when you say if you observed do you mean that if You observe it with anything but you have to do something people but you say that people go yeah I saw that in the secret the problem is it's a psychological thing but it physics is going to take measurement thing fry and soloist if there is an electron sitting in the middle of this table and all the lights are out I can say I think there's an electron here let me find out in the moment I turn on the lights the light interacts a photon and electron and kicks it somewhere else so the more I try to measure the position the less I know its position so because you need to

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the measurement requires and interaction with it and in the quantum scale interactions change the state of the experiment that you're conducting we know this we Quantified it with we don't like it but we deal with it and then the act of dealing with it you can exploit that fact for other purposes we explain Quantum craziness to birth the inductive the information technology Revolution there is no creation storage or retrieval of information without an exploitation of the quantum

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so and by the way the quantum was discovered in quantum physics as a branch of physics was discovered in the 1920s if you were around back then and your tax buddies I don't like paying taxes what would you have said why are you spending government money I'm broke on the atom and on molecules that you can't even see them what good is it Adams right here I am you have yet to shove that where your where your tax dollar is and so it would look like you're wasting your own time and everybody else's money

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it would take decades five decades before five decade before you realize what role that would play in Computing this creation storage and retrieval of information and buy some as a third of the world's GDP is traceable to what quantum physics does for us on a Computing scale for certain industries that would still be there without Computing but they're made more efficient with it okay so UPS tracks all of their trucks with GPS in with Computing devices then developed the quantum UPS predates the use of this these tools but you can look at profits relative to their efficiencies that are enabled by these technology as well as the entire fields that didn't exist before Computing you at all that up it's a stunning fact and my only point is that you

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if you want today to say why study this when we have these other problems well I do like all I do is take it back to the cave and let's say I'm in the cave and there's a mountain over there in the valley and I tell you I told her that the cable I tell the tribe leaders I want to explore that mountain inn at Valley

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no we can't afford to send you out there now we have to solve the cave problems first before anyone leaves the k

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we laugh at that that's absurd claim to make

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the caveman days I don't know if I did it but that's a crazy thought because their solutions to your problems that might exist and time has demonstrated likely Exist by leaving the cave that you can discover so for me voice is not just space all the frontiers of the unknown biology chemistry a I know those tears and then you can cross pollinate them and transform civilization the last example I want to hear you talk to interact with what I'm telling here's one you ready okay my physics professor in college

► 00:43:28

study the universe love the universe study gas clouds between stars and study and why would you detect against Cloud if it's not radiating white will they give off radio waves all right and he figured out what kind of radio waves do they give off and why and in this he gain expertise in the nucleus of the atom and he discovered that the nucleus can resonate

► 00:43:51

depending on the mass of the nucleus it will which means depending on what Atom it is on the periodic table it will resonate slightly differently when exposed to the same electromagnetic field he discovered a new phenomenon in physics called nuclear magnetic resonance

► 00:44:09

it was then take a clever medical technologist to say wait a minute if you can distinguish one heavy Atom from another

► 00:44:18

money making machine out of that put your body in it and I can vent distinguish one kind of tissue from another and just was born the magnetic resonance imagery the MRI arguably the most potent tool in the Arsenal of modern medicine why can diagnose a condition in your body without cutting you open first that is based on a principle of physics Discovery by a physicist but no interest in Medicine by the way that the real title should be nuclear magnetic resonance imaging but that's the other end word you know you crazy. They didn't like that one inside the machine if the word nuclear was on it my point is that was a cross pollination of ideas with clever people on their Frontiers looking over the fence at discoveries that are being made it's how we got the microwave oven that was invented by a thermodynamicist

► 00:45:17

microwave this is a World War II attempt to communicate using microwaves and they found out some guys chocolate bar melted in the microwave field this is what they happen there they did some more test and of course the water molecule and other molecules common in food respond to microwave it vibrates them

► 00:45:38

ferociously and so you put food in a microwave cavity the water content of the food vibrates

► 00:45:45

action Cooks the food there still people do today would say a nucleus cuz if so fast I have no tickets just friction okay friction it everybody scared that it fucks up the food does it know it just it just eats the water and gets scared the woo-woo people do okay so there's certain foods that don't respond well to the flipping of the water molecule and one of them is like bread products gets hard chewy and leathery and tried and you still good if you overdo it and get well that's kind of it I'm trying to think you wouldn't grill a steak in a microwave you would heat up the meat uniformly and that's that's all it would do him pretty fast but it's a mess and it splattered all over so you pick the foods that are best for that situation as you would pick the foods best you wouldn't you wouldn't put

► 00:46:43

toast in an oven at 350° bread tomatoes we have posters for that right so different things in your kitchen do things best you wouldn't make ice cream in your you know did you spend your toaster oven that people are afraid of microwaves the one thing they're afraid of is not it's not that you're afraid of microwaves that they're afraid of things they don't understand what happened to their food that makes it less good correct and it's just it's it's not the not knowing that people fear my wife's friend's mom will not eat something that comes out of a microwave really cheap quotes that as part of what makes her healthy drinks a lot of water she refuses to eat microwave food

► 00:47:27

the whole life is around not using microwave or she won't eat anything that comes out of the microwave I'm glad that she doesn't she can live a long happy life as such she let her reheat food old school okay one of the hardest thing is reheating lasagna if you don't have a microwave on shrew best I can possibly going to cook it again just eat a bowl of pasta just in general soup or adding any nuclear radiation correct with radiation than the normal sense other than electromagnetic radiation it's already light from the bulb which tend to use radiation in the context of stuff that would hurt you so that would be radiation of high enough energy to hurt you and microwaves are not in that category I never even thought about with microwaves do until this conversation really

► 00:48:27

frequency of microwaves that beautifully pairs with the water molecule and it vibrates it brilliantly thing that has no water in it it's not really very you snapped jerky it's like it's hot it's my cousin microwave oven heated the plate is cuz of my food and the food that's why I could usually pick it up at the handles

► 00:49:03

that's right it doesn't burst of flame burst into flames this is crazy what is the difference between MRI and fmri expertise you're about to head to the little I know that MRI they put you in there in your stationary and then they make this map of whatever part of the body they're studying is typically your head all right but you can do it on for your joints in other parts of your body that might require this level of three dimensional analysis and it's a 3D map of what's going on in the park that they surveyed and so you look at it for the slices through that section so you might see in MRIs of your brain of your skull and they take slices you as much slices go through you see like the eye socket come in and then go out again where the nose cap and and you can look at it at all sweet imagines front back side to side up to down so so depending on the sophistication the machine fmri

► 00:50:03

looking at your brain while you were thinking so time is now an active coordinate of what's going on and they're measuring it as they're talking to you about ice cream sundae with a cherry on top but think of a naked person who you'd want to have sex with and that I have to stand for funks functional right and so it's basically a real-time observation of what's going on it's really highly criticized case but she was convicted of a crime I believe it was murder because she had functional knowledge of the crime scene

► 00:50:43

and the arguments against it were like if you're going to be accused of a crime clearly you going to study the evidence you going to talk to a lawyer going to go over some things you going to be my I don't know if fmri is that precise yeah they don't think it is that's why I was very disturbing that this was used in court it's like you remember when these Italian geologist were I think they were try because they should have known about an earthquake before it happened and then scientist how to say hey guys this is not how it works like this shit can just happen that's so you know I don't but that's what I do know that let me share a couple of things with you that thought deeply about recently there are three kinds of truths in the world because we're at work at 3 let me get I'll give you 3 OK the Rudy Giuliani kind you're welcome

► 00:51:43

impact that okay are you ready okay I'll turn the fact I do something called it objected truth and objective truth is something that is true whether or not you believe in it and the methods and tools of science are uniquely conceived to seek out and establish objective truths and this time in referring to the invocation of the scientific method no one scientific result result research result is true

► 00:52:11

until it is verified by other people's research results using a different experimental method with different walk her it from another country we when your competitor says I think you're wrong let me show how your wrongfully reproducer experiment and get the same result when you have generally the same results emerging that is a newly discovered objective truth about the natural world and we have a check your Tuesday not later shown to be false

► 00:52:39

that's an objective then you have personal truths

► 00:52:44

these are true that you hold dearly Jesus is your savior Muhammad is the final Prophet on Earth you you know Abraham is your these are your personal troops there's a heaven you're going to no one is going to take that from you not in a free country where freedom of expression and speech and religion is protected it's a personal truth the problem here is you can't convince someone else of your personal truth without some Act of persuasion and in the limit and act of violence okay in the limit in the limit this how you get Holy Wars so I have this personal truth and I require that you share my personal truthful wise that's a recipe for disaster and not a belief because the people who hold the belief will tell you that it's a truth so I don't want to take that usage of the word away from them okay so you're giving them and giving them the word truth but modifying it to say personal truth

► 00:53:44

that's correct I'm not going to abuse it that way for the millenia I'm not going to okay they feel that is true and it's true in their bones I'm simply saying that because it's your personal truth you cannot require that someone else share it and in this country because the United States because God is not mentioned in the Constitution itself a controversial thing and it stay by the way Ashley God is mentioned but it's been a very insignificant way that the constitution is a Godfrey document and because it's a God free document it protect

► 00:54:21

your expression of religious face because it means the government has no say in who and what you believe or why

► 00:54:31

if the Constitution said mention God and Jesus will there it is is Christianity built into the fabric of the country and if you want to be some other religion you can have a hard time cuz we can set laws against it this is why so many religiously persecuted people came to the United States to escape their country where they could not practice their religion a little differently or lot differently from what was going on in their homes in their Homeland to call it truth I would rather not call a truce but I I'm I'm a big word guy and I respect what happens to words I don't always like it but I respect it and so I'm going to say there's an objective truth which is true whether or not you believe it is your personal truth which is true to you

► 00:55:17

search what is a political truth or truth is something that is true because it has been incessantly repeated

► 00:55:28

and then you just believe it and that's what I don't know what's Hillary Clinton's first name it's crooked is actually Hillary okay I thought it was crooked Hillary this is was incessantly repeated in the Trump campaign example of it but the point is if you keep saying

► 00:55:51

if you keep saying that the New York Times is fake news it just keep saying that eventually people believe it and it becomes a political truth because the politicians repeated it so what's a political true that people believe it or it's a put Uncle truth because people believe it so you're trying to preserve the true fundamental meaning of the word truth and Jordan Peterson and Sam Harris had an infuriating and frustrating podcast where they went over the meaning of the word Truth for more than an hour and I like I said you can do that and philosophers like arguing and debating meaning of things for me it's however people using the word that's the meaning I can see that but we can see why I don't call myself an atheist dictionary definition of atheist and a butt

► 00:56:51

what is the definition of atheist in practice it is what leading atheist do and it's their conduct in this their behavior is what they say and it's it it's the it's their attitude that is what an atheist today because they were the most visible exemplars of that word and most of their conduct I either don't agree with or simply don't engaging what don't you agree with I don't debate religious people and tell them they're idiots I don't and it doesn't work. It works I just not it's not in me to do that I I don't Purge myself of words that have religious foundations in them I wants in my Facebook I had a friend going up in orbit to repair the Hubble telescope one of the astronaut and I said godspeed and then I gave the astronaut's name people who wrote In in the scratch that I thought you were an atheist how can you say Godspeed Faith he's got angry with me and I said

► 00:57:49

okay first of all this phrase is deeply historical in the space program when John Glenn was want to have mine was godspeed John Glenn every Mission recent human beings into space somewhere there's that reference in the NASA family by the way in just one minute the atheist or arguing that I was using godspeed as a phrase they all have used the phrase goodbye haven't they see you later goodbye at work come from it's from God be with you it's a contraction of those three words and why would you say this you would say this is someone leaving the city wall where it's dangerous okay back when did city-states you're going to your God be with you to bring protection for you between one city hall in Hemet

► 00:58:49

crabs look out for you so now what is the source of danger if you're going to space it's not alien space muggers it is the fact that you had space Marauders it's the fact that you have high speed and high speed is the source of essentially any death of anything that's in motion if you were part of that disaster so got speed is like a space equivalent to God be with you is that was really the origin of the saying it should they say that before they was space travel to they say Godspeed I don't know the actual origin of space travel out of the term I don't how far back it goes but I do know it became common after John Glenn cuz I'm not going to say it to Yuri Gagarin cuz they were there all atheists in in the Soviet Union but here in America in America godspeed John Glenn and I respect that tradition and so I said that and then they jump so if 8

► 00:59:49

jumping on me for having said that clearly I'm not an atheist ask me my favorite Broadway musical Dalton what's your favorite broad Christ Superstar I still use BC and AD in my writings okay I still do it don't use BCE I don't use BC all right don't see even you cut coppin attitude right there right now I saw your face you got the years ago I'm going to tell you so BCE as you know since were before Common Era and c e stands for Common Era so this is D religious if buying a D & B & B C okay yeah the course they reference the same calendar okay well who invented the calendar we all currently used in modern society is called the Gregorian calendar was invented by the Catholic Church by Jesuit priests

► 01:00:49

in the 1580s assigned by Pope Gregory to fix the problems in the calendar because I'm start screaming at you

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the Julian calendar put forth in ancient Rome

► 01:01:08

had one modification to previous calendar they had a leak day okay

► 01:01:13

did I delete a

► 01:01:15

and okay Lisa is how often every four years this was good cuz when we trying to track which one it is earth goes around the Sun and so we say alright how long does that take go takes a year but it turns out we're not actually tracking how long it takes Earth to go around the Sun without tracking how long it takes Earth to repeat its seasons

► 01:01:38

and the repeat the year that corresponds to our seasons is slightly different from the year the car spawns to how long it takes to go around the Sun slightly different and that difference was not recognized in the early calendars and that difference accumulated so that by the year 1584

► 01:02:00

the vernal equinox the first day of spring did not occur on March 21st occurred on March 10th it's shifted from the calendar date that's what happens if you don't match the cycles of things and the pope said we're not having any of this especially since Easter might land on Passover and we try to distinguish a cell's mightily from the Jews so let's fix this the Jesuit priest got to study this he looked at the cycles of the heavens the Sun the moon the stars and they came up with a new calendar to Gregorian calendar a modification to the Julian calendar you don't have to do to invoke it had to take 10 days out of my calendar to jumpstart to put the first day of spring back on March 21st then it happened in October 1584

► 01:02:46

why is there Bentyl 10 days out of the calendar amortize rent to pay for 3 weeks instead of 20 days instead of 30 to figure that out okay point is this was hard earned in the whole world uses this calendar it is the most accurate calendar ever devised you ask Watch What Happens

► 01:03:12

the leap day overcorrected the calendar

► 01:03:16

can overcorrected over correct yes yes so you need to leave here so notes are the weekdays every four years that one day every 4 years was slowly putting too many days into the moments into the year okay the Gregorian calendar figure this out and headed put 10 extra days since the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar first jumpstart get rid of the 10 days never sings wind up again okay now how do you prevent this from happening again

► 01:03:45

because it over correct how long do you have to wait to remove a leaf day that you would otherwise put in

► 01:03:54

okay okay it's every hundred years so every hundred years that would be a leap day

► 01:04:03

you remove delete Day by an even smaller amount okay so how long do you have to wait before you have to put a leap day back in

► 01:04:18

every 400 years

► 01:04:22

so the year 2000 was a century year which normally would not have a leap day except it's a century year evenly divisible by 400 so they put the leap day back in and everybody on February almost everybody everybody except the astronomers on February 29th in the year 2000 set it's just a leap year cuz it's divisible by 4 no it is a rare leap year it is a century year divisible by 400

► 01:04:55

that corrects it back and so now you have a stable calendar for tens of thousands of years I got to give props to the Jesuit priest I'm not going to say no I'm taking the Christianity out of this reference cuz they figured out the calendar that we all used and it's a fucking awesome count sorry to drop an F-bomb then I'm not just because some atheists are telling me to rid God out of everything in the universe that I'm not doing that I'm going to say they came up with the calendar for the reasons workers they didn't want to confuse it with Passover the motivation is whatever it is but The Sciences is good and so they're so intercessory to war we go back many centuries the editor said we should use BCAA cuz it's a liberal forward thing I said I'm not using BCE and CE and by the way there was no year 0

► 01:05:45

you know why there's no use here cuz the Romans came up with the calendar and they counted using Roman numerals and Roman numerals don't have a zero it was not yet invented went from 1 BC to 81 BC is before Christ ad is anno domini in Latin the year of Our Lord in Islam in China and in in Hebrew culture is Israel in particular have access to the Chinese calendar the Muslim calendar Muslim of course dates to Muhammad Chinese calendar dates to actually a planetary alignment in 4700 BC they don't they use a different system and the Hebrew calendar dates to like the beginning of the universe as interpreted in the in the Torah so they have access to those but when the conducting international business we just simply that used to be

► 01:06:45

my calendar just get over it in China do they use it constantly and consistently or do they alternate between the Gregorian calendar and something else and my friends and colleagues conducting business the world's business is conducted in on the Gregorian calendar with a 12 month calendar with it with the year as reference at by everybody else doesn't have to be done that way in terms of flake is there as anyone ever done a study on possibly creating a more effective more accurate calendar doesn't invoke leap years and the problem is the length of the day does not cut evenly to the time it takes Earth to go around the Sun always be fractions of days that you're accumulating and then what do you do with him you wait till you see me like today and put it in or take it out what did the Mayans in a lunar cycle calendar

► 01:07:45

that it was like the really accurate calendar for 10:00 better than any Greene County you know what to believe the people 5000 years ago somehow knew more about the universe that we do today just know why is that why they want to believe that I think I don't know for me that's one of the great puzzles of Life why do people want to believe that the Egyptian somehow had some access to the universe they knew someone killed some incredible shit but that I would take that away from doesn't the physical presence of these incredible buildings leave the possibility that maybe they had some dollars that we lost

► 01:08:37

most knowledge is a real thing I don't want to belittle or would diminish the significance of real knows we forgot how to draw in perspective you know from ancient times had to be rediscovered in the as I understand from the artist had to be rediscovered in the Renaissance the archway of the Roman Arch had to go to be rediscovered okay so yes yes you can lose knowledge but if you look at the knowledge we have gleaned using the method of Modern methods and tools of science they go far beyond our five senses in our access to the world

► 01:09:12

to say that somehow they knew something that we don't using our tools that's just false sorry that just it's just it's not possible but we know the physiological limits of your ability to know what's going on around you is fine but as a scientist I have dozens of Senses but I can measure things that your five senses can't I can measure the magnetic field around Earth electromagnetic field how much are microwaves a coursing through your body now we have no sensors for this I can see auras fine I can see other things that affect in your body now I can tell you if ionizing radiation is passing through you I've Geiger counters I can do that you can't you'll final you will eventually learn what you were supposed to ionizing radiation because you're you'll get cancer of your organs in your limbs fall off I can see that we know far more today guess perhaps attending no not even perhaps than any other time I'm conceivable history

► 01:10:12

but it is possible that they knew some things like how to build a pyramid yes that we really just don't understand today

► 01:10:22

I don't know what it means to not understand how to build a pyramid today we have we have a hundred and fifty story building so we do not thinking about hearing this stuff I can tell you this you know where the first thing that was built by humans ever know that's only part of the sentence the tallest thing humans built

► 01:10:47

after the pyramids

► 01:10:49

I think it's a building in Dubai

► 01:10:53

so in other words what's the first thing after the pyramids right after what is the next tallest thing we built stable structure after the pyramid what

► 01:11:06

18 whatever the TV 918 say that late 1800s in Paris the Eiffel Tower that was the first stable structure we built as a civilization that was taller than the pyramids show the Egyptians new day new architecture they knew no one's taking that away from them

► 01:11:27

but the claim have some secret knowledge of the functioning of the universe no no deal in the fact that we're dealing with the very very most recent 2500 BC they built you just have to be more ingenious more interview we otherwise would have to be yeah how do you move the blocks how to how do you make Stonehenge those those rocks are nowhere in the region they would carded from Subway they found a place where those rocks were with would have been mined removed and yeah those are some big ass rocks yeah that's her the one that's impressive because they're just big like what did the thing about the pyramids are so impressive is the Precision in the sheer numbers 2600000 stones are best understanding of Stonehenge is that it's a functioning Observatory they can actually predict eclipses

► 01:12:28

so do I get the judge I just got here bitch slap you there

► 01:12:35


► 01:12:39

Solstice that are not stones but they're 56 holes which is three times the the serous which is the cycle of eclipse is of the matching of the orbits of the Sun in the moon in the sky the path of the sun in the moon in the sky and when they match up you get in the clips is there is it cost for joint or a guy named that's absolutely what it is

► 01:13:01

there's a book publishing in the 1970s by a guy named David

► 01:13:09

Dawkins Richard Dawkins what's another one of these bookings Richard Hawkins just look up the Stonehenge decoded just look up the title that book it's highly convincing and we all were all there with it there's no sense of justice study of the position of the stones in relationship to the weather OK Daryl so he at age 15 on an expedition and he was the Expedition head oh wow so lucky for you it was good and that stuck with me which is why I named this phenomenon in Manhattan where the sun sets along the street side so I need that manhattanhenge back to my early days thinking about the alignment of the Sun and Ski

► 01:14:09

pictures that we might bill for those viewers are listening to Don't Know twice a year the Manhattan Street grid which is not perfectly aligned north south the Manhattan Street grid will that the sun will set exactly on the grid and what's up there now that image what's not obvious is that picture is taken along a street that is itself 3 miles long and then you're crossing a the Hudson River and then there's New Jersey on the other side so people try to zoom in on it but really what you really should do is zoom out front and then you get the vanishing point on it so if you all those are zoom zoom then let's go to that one looks more like like my photo back to that other one

► 01:14:59

yeah so that's on 34th Street the one you see now and then you get this sparkly like that happens twice a year. Sort of crazy wild light effect that looks yeah there's an image on his Instagram that is linked on my Instagram the most recent photo okay afro oh yeah that's wrong that's my first I was at 1419 poly 1974 wow so I would have been 15 I think about 14 or 15 year path of curiosity set go back the other one but they go back to all the all the pictures there

► 01:15:54

how to go to the bottom like they're you got okay that might be the first ever manhattanhenge photo what year is that from I took that in publishing 2002 before September 11th this is July I'll check it before September 11th right right and then I had a means to publish it and right then they noticed it it's a green light and traffic is ready to knock me over so so no one is in the streets doing this but now they're tens of thousands of people that pour into the streets on these days we post what day you get manhattanhenge from the American Museum of Natural History my day job and then that goes out the Press gets it and tens of thousands of people spill at the street blocking traffic and even think of all the ways Traffic gets blocked in your day

► 01:16:43

all it was too many of them was it you that name this structure if you made of stone it's a Stonehenge why isn't it possible to construct the calendar the doesn't have leap years

► 01:17:15

what you would have to do you could do it but what would happen is it means you care more about the year than you do about the day so what would happen is you would celebrate the new year at like 3 in the afternoon right and then the next year you're celebrated at like

► 01:17:33

12 minutes after 3 in the afternoon and then 20 minutes if you would you would it would sort of move through your calendar and then that means you cared more about the year the chart you care more about the timeshare that right you we always want to celebrate New Years on midnight and by the way New Year's Eve celebrated in 24 time zones not all at the same time so she thinks of that is a moment yeah it's really a calendar event that's why he took it celebrated over 24 hours 10 hours difference so therefore if you were to do it Astro physically you would know the exact moment where we were turned in our orbit

► 01:18:17

and everybody would celebrate that instant in that would be so then the whole world was celebrate the new year at the same time that means you value it differently it's not a midnight celebration it's a you could do that unless chill sounds Celestial yeah so that would be the only way yeah but that's the only way a day doesn't cut evenly into the year. Don't you have nothing to do with one another is no reason why that would have till we we we so in other words let me say it another way just cuz you looking like you're like you you're looking off in space here so there's New Year's okay let's count 365 days

► 01:18:58

when we do that

► 01:19:00

we are not

► 01:19:03

at the same place we were when we last celebrated New Year's Day New Year's Eve okay around something I'm supposed to work so I use those two words that we're not in the same place but we celebrate New Years anyway when we be in the same place a quarter of a day later 6 hours so we would celebrate the next new year at 6 a.m. nobody want to do that was the end of the next new year at noon the next year at 6 p.m. and then the next to your kind of alarms back again blast Elite day that's the fourth year we have put in a leave day see so it's our love of the day yes that keeps us fucked up with the world when it comes to the year pick one and then that's how that's how you do it on the moon right I didn't get on my nerves

► 01:20:03

I didn't study their calendar as deeply as I should have and wanted to especially back in 2012 and everyone said how the Mayan calendar runs out so therefore it's the end of the world I was thinking I was thinking was the end of the world baby at the Maya sets out like but that was back when you know before that what had happened it was you know George Bush was president like 2007 and everybody was thinking Jesus this is this is going to be the end of it so what so every decade there's somebody predicting the end of the world sure I'm actually quite entertained by this exercise at Billboards all around La just a few years ago that that's a different end of the world that's a guy with a radio Podcast church that he until you push to forward to that's it's an entertaining we live in a free country it's having is that we live in a free country

► 01:20:58

where freedom of speech is protected and you can practice any religion you want and they didn't learn much science in school that's a part of it that's part of the fact that you have this in our world I don't mind it actually I find it entertaining but it becomes an issue two people such as that gain power over legislation over the rest of us believe the world is going to end on October 19th in the fine just impose your personal belief on me and your personal belief

► 01:21:39

is not true for everyone it's only true for you yeah that's a problem I ended up jackets with a true friend wants if you if you can have governance you going to want a basic governance of what is objectively true

► 01:21:52

cuz it would apply to everyone independent of your belief system

► 01:21:57

yeah I agree with that hey by the way there there there are things that we not sure or true yet that we're still researching that's not what I'm talking about isn't as an objective truth I've been verified by multiple scientific studies not just one study this was the problem with the the cholesterol study there's a commercial study that said everybody on the course to drop their cholesterol levels okay saying it would be good for your heart and all the rest of this because a series of countries were studied where they have longevity and low heart low heart disease and low cholesterol intake happened to leave out France

► 01:22:38

it happened it just wasn't in the study and a couple of other places that have high cholesterol intake but don't have higher heart disease

► 01:22:47

so that study was flawed but was hard to replicate it because it went over many years and it was thousands of people and so everyone just jumped on it

► 01:22:57

you don't have a scientific truth and this is a general problem with medical results because the Press is waiting at the at the at the journal editors office oh here's a new study that shows at this gives you cancer that must be true and how comes they have lockers you want to be the first to report it and then it gets emblazoned in people's heads and not everyone reads the follow-up no one could duplicate that study know what so there's a flaw we don't even know what the floor is we know that no one else could get those results so it's goes in the Dustbin of scientific research most research and any Journal of the moment will ultimately shown to be wrong

► 01:23:38

that's the bleeding edge of science it's a it's a great place to because you're in the you're in the trenches and you don't know what is true you can't look up in the back of the book with the answer is to double-check you don't even know what the question is to ask half the time

► 01:23:54

that's very frustrating for people that don't get it and it's exciting for the knowledge. Expanding and growing but it's very frustrating for people that really don't have the time and you know maybe did get some outdated nutrition knowledge answers right now without the need to go to to to research it or to go on the frontier the lack of Education in the lack of lack of curiosity about it's one of the scariest things about new generation 2 kids right like when the new generation 2 coming up if they know last in the generation before that's when we really start to freak out that be a problem although I have good confidence in the 30 and under Millennial I called you have to be only ever known the internet and devices so what do we say recent

► 01:24:54

and he's like my kids are millennials so they're 20 ish so he's a little old so 25 and under I think are the Millennials when they were 10 the internet was around a marketing term so you can mark it to them differently so to me I would put them in the same been just as you were thinking there they have a different relationship to science and technology did not Dental fear the science or the technology they embrace it because it has shaped the civilization that is unable their social life it has but through this like the one who thinks I tweeted I think it was from Scientific American yesterday news yesterday that it's a little bit misleading but want to think they said it's only 64% of Millennials have a strong belief these things these coasters are terrible they look great but then things stick to the bottle was it made of metal a metal coaster

► 01:25:54

stick shift when it gets moisture

► 01:25:58

you know about this we flipped it over and it took it over and then it what happened

► 01:26:03

what is a 64% of what of Millennials are not or only 64% are convinced the world is a ball the world is a circle that Laura's what is a spheroid so it is called oblique I'd like to see how that question would ask if they know that we are oblate and the thing is asking is Earth a ball that's a no we're going to ball on a slightly wider below the equator than a bit at the Equator so wear a pear-shaped oblate spheroid but it's not a pair that you would find normally if you found that. Like this fucking pair that shaped like a ball so these distinction these references and measurements are so small that if you found it on the ground you say there's a perfect sphere

► 01:27:03

does the geographic Globes and you rub your finger over in the pile and you get the the the Himalayas yeah yeah you get the Rockies and gross exaggeration a real yes I do realize if you took Earth with all those mountains valleys and hills in it and truck it down to the size of a cue ball you'll be smoother than any cue ball ever machine

► 01:27:26

I guess

► 01:27:28

yes think about it why I think think about this okay

► 01:27:40

no the Marianas Trench off the coast of the Philippines in the Pacific Ocean down okay thinking of the depth access to the deepest part of Earth's crust the lowest point on Earth's surface the Marianas Trench right off the coast of the Philippines the highest point on Earth's surface

► 01:28:05

the tip of a K1 K2 Japan I think it's K1 why would you name the tallest peak K2 good point about a mountain climber but I'm I'm just thinking where is k1 okay I think it is okay so now what's up how high up is that was 28,000 feet so it's like 5 miles up okay

► 01:28:37

the distance

► 01:28:40

between the lowest point on Earth's surface and the highest point on Earth's surface is 11 miles

► 01:28:47

that's here to The Comedy Store that is less than the length of Manhattan

► 01:28:52

oh yeah we are 8000 Miles in diameter

► 01:28:58

and those two points are very far separated from one another if you are cosmic Giant and you came up to Earth and you rub your finger over Earth's surface

► 01:29:08

it would feel as smooth as a cue ball to you wow in fact it in this it in this book have a whole chapter called on being round which is all about this all about our perception of what is rounding what is not I had asked you to debate what men Flat Earth guys know I don't know I know we talked about it and we're going to have them on Skype not what we do and I think this is a diabolical plot so that the next time we can ship people on mass into orbit they all want to be the first in line cuz I know we're going to send them so they can see the round her they could be the first ones in space just so they can stop annoying the recipe I don't think you're correct I do have people that have met that don't believe because they the problem with YouTube videos is in Sprite with a lot of things but one of the things about being unchecked while you are discussing things as you can say things you can use big words you can sound articular

► 01:30:08

I'm smooth and you can do it in a very professional-looking manner will be passionately passionately convincingly charismatically and you your unchecked but if you did that in front of an expert and you showed him that along the way to go. That's not true stop this. It works. Let me show you why this is incorrect let me show you how you can prove that this is incorrect show you eject of truth about this is not happening render your argument invalid so people don't have any education and then they watch one of these YouTube clips they start actually believing this stuff makes sense because it's on track and I would say it's not about whether they've had education it's about whether the education they had teaches them skepticism of information and teach them how to inquire you realize it's just as intellectually lazy

► 01:30:58

to believe everything you see as it is to deny everything you say yes why should someone

► 01:31:06

no automatically that Earth isn't flat yet I tell them in the next breath that the entire universe was once a small as a marble

► 01:31:16

both of those sound equally Preposterous has evidence to back it and the other does not a very strong scientific theoretical and experimental underpinnings so when you are trained to inquire you don't either believe everything out right or reject everything out right you're trying to ask questions you train to probe deeper than the layer of information that comes to you that's what should be taught in school and it's not you did give you a book and say learn this and you'll get tested on it and then when you're done learned this what is an also there's a problem with being a inexorably connected to your first belief do when you have an idea and it's in your head it's very difficult for people to shake that I didn't they start arguing that idea idea becomes a party right down and they dig their heels in deeper an opposing view is presented themselves to these idea right it's it is who they are

► 01:32:16

so I try not to base my character profile on something that is not yet verified as objective truth this is very good thing to do it's only reasons why I don't have tattoos on my body

► 01:32:33

stretching my face go on one of the reasons is there's nothing I am so sure about that I want to put it indelibly on my skin there's nothing I value in my mind body and soul so much in this moment that I want to indelibly etched on my skin cuz I want to leave room for me to have a possibly more enlightening thought later that would override whatever was my decision in that moment and since I count myself among the lifelong Learners I'm learning stuff all the time and say wow

► 01:33:19

that's good I didn't know that what that that's even better what time do you learned recently that you went okay let me know

► 01:33:33

okay so the only recently I think I knew this when I was a kid but if you're playing basketball when you're shooting okay and you say oh that didn't go in oh my God she will let you know the rim they can maybe make the room a little bigger IQ score more often do you realize

► 01:33:46

two basketballs can fit exactly side-by-side through the opening of a basketball hoop

► 01:33:55

really yes I guess it makes sense to basketball's top squeeze mind-blowing moment but that gives you perspective next time you watch a basketball game Fish how these guys can fly from the from the foul line in a in a Airborne slam dunk and not miss

► 01:34:21

because the area of the opening is four times you do the math it's four times as large as the ball itself right because of the different position so you could be

► 01:34:34

so it's not that easy to accomplish but knowing this you realize how much easier it is to score then you might have otherwise thought I wonder if basketball recent it was a recent Revelation to Revelation basketball players occasionally practice with a smaller hole I think about this all the time I see if I was a basketball player you don't have practice with a heavier than you would never throw you off your ball it's a long time ago I bet they still don't they no longer do it because it's different the gripper I had matters to hell's going with f and in baseball you throw faster pitch to give you less reaction time the pool tables are very small pocket opening

► 01:35:34

nobody's supposed to a five and a half inch and so I would also a ball in the street in New York and still using basic with broom handle and so when the first time you play baseball officially is like wow and so stick ball players tend to transfer very well to baseball when your kid because you're at your instrument is bigger to smaller parts about it is Brazilian soccer players how good they are and the heat tributes to a different game that they play with a heavier ball that they do indoors it's a small heavy ball and because they do it in tight quarters and involves incredibly fast footwork for okay and movement and then these guys take that footwork and movement and it translates amazingly well to an open

► 01:36:34

soccer field if they calculated that because what you would do is what should have always twice as much then it would only go half as far when you kicked it so then you make it feel half as large

► 01:36:45

I don't think they did drop the reproduce almost all of the Dynamics of the soccer game I think it was based on just trying to play a game and looking for the field is half the size right minigame base that makes sense playing sports on other planets with different routes very very fun thing to do if your a dork and people say dork and I say yeah thanks for the compliment Nerdist okay there it is accepted as well and also be the people that were like but now a nerd is like you can be a science nerd and people like it that's a girl yeah I'm an old movie nerd you can say that

► 01:37:45

take a picture must have told you this last time I was on your show when I was a kid I was bigger than other kids I was always one of the tallest two kids in the class out of 30 sharks bigger than others in the day and I was also physically fit and Physically Active athletic but I was squarely in the geek Camp okay I had my slide rule back in the day walking down the corridor

► 01:38:17

you know you were also wrestled back I was Captain in my high school wrestling team so I was a geek person who could actually kick your ass okay and I saw how my fellow Geeks cuz that's the community that I socially car karaoke with treated by the football quarterback in the popular kids and the kids who are all beautiful and the ones who and I imagine my future as a superhero defender of the Geeks so that you put up a little you know bat signal whatever geek signal a few digits of pi tonight come flying wedgie in progress right I would just land and I grabbed the bully and and rip them off the the counter and I would just save the day this is there's my superheroes football players remote always it's okay I think they were awarded for the violence they also have brain damage

► 01:39:17

cool kids spring literally across the board the majority of people who play football have CTE in as far down as seventh grade sentence for chronic traumatic encephalopathy encephalopathy... Encephalopathy like Mike Tyson so let me tell you that story about Christopher Columbus please so the dick story your story just something else okay I think him coming to America

► 01:39:57

was the most significant thing to ever happen in our species

► 01:40:06


► 01:40:09

not internet porn porn in another medium wow not a matter of gas does it exist or does it not okay I think was the most significant event to happen in our kind of amazing when you stop and think about the fact that at that point in time other than the Native Americans who lived here who is living in nomadic tribal existence very few people that had the wheel that had firearms that had all these things that it already been achieved in the rest of the world have made their way to this place when I watch okay here's how it worked so I presume that you have some skepticism of this claim as most people would especially the the Columbus haters were out there all right. I don't really have any nepotism about it to let me describe to you why I think this is true

► 01:41:08

you can tell me what you would you agree or not alright

► 01:41:12

we are hunter-gatherers we haven't settled down yet early humans and we're basically wondering we're following the herds alright Anthony ice age hits

► 01:41:28

what what is an ice age and Ice Age means it is so cold that when the moisture evaporates from the oceans goes to the clouds the clouds go over the land it doesn't rain it snows

► 01:41:45

and the snow falls and it stays

► 01:41:50

so the water that had lifted up from the ocean does not return to the ocean it accumulates on the land and this accumulation when it's significant and sustained we called glaciers

► 01:42:05

glaciers is not itself a snowfall it is compressed snow that's basically change State into this this ice river that flows very slowly back to the ocean but the oceans are getting drained faster than they're getting replenished so during the Ice Age the ocean levels dropped

► 01:42:29

exposing the Bering Strait land bridge between Asia and what is now Alaska basically North America

► 01:42:39

the our ancestors will come out of Africa going to Europe so I'm staying other is kept wondering some stayed low above the Mediterranean others went hi they populate Asia they keep walking because it's on land bridge there didn't even

► 01:42:55

just more land so they walk and they enter North America from there this kind of way you can go with South at that point the weather gets a little better and

► 01:43:08

the glaciers melt back into the oceans the oceans level ocean levels rise closing the land bridge

► 01:43:17

stranding a branch of the human species

► 01:43:24

for 10,000 years those humans who made it across that land bridge and spread out into North America Central America South America

► 01:43:35

have only a few families as their parent genetic as their genetic origin okay well it's like some research as like a family lineages populated the entire North or South American continents in the land bridge breaks

► 01:43:54

now you have Europe Asia Africa

► 01:43:58

and North and South America and they know nothing of one another

► 01:44:02

two separate branches of the human species the Vikings notwithstanding maybe they found came over and they didn't even if they did their influence was near zero relative to the Europeans influence here

► 01:44:18

this is a branch had this continued this how you speciate this is why the species on Australia history of mammals they would they have pouches right no other mammals do that they split off and they have all their own way okay so 10,000 years is not enough to grow three heads or do you know 12 fingers

► 01:44:42

but our species as separate now Columbus crosses the Atlantic

► 01:44:48

makes contact with humans this is the first time that has happened in 10,000 years

► 01:44:54

we have rejoined two branches of the human species

► 01:44:59

we are now one common genetic group

► 01:45:05

and that genetic cross-breeding continues to this day we we fly to any corner of the world inmate okay in the meeting already began immediately yes it would diseases that Columbus brought to North America much written about that let's written is that he brought syphilis back to Europe First cases of syphilis in 1492 from the Native Americans what did they have no problem with it well I don't know the details of how the physiology of the natives dealt with that or whether it mutated you know how to make people know that I'm not among them that's fast just look at you look at the graph of syphilis reported syphilis cases in urine it all began in 1492 when he came back so

► 01:45:54

this was a hugely significant event the rejoining of the branches of the human species but yea though I would imagine that that makes sense that is the most important event that led by the way Native Americans you know it's famous Infamous problem with metabolizing alcohol okay with Native American you know what else has a problem the Chinese

► 01:46:15

Badoo yes yes so it's an Asian issue well so who stayed in it so you look at who populated North and South America

► 01:46:28

after the year before the land bridge is whoever was right at the edge of Asia then the land bridges are so so so Asians and and North American at the natives of North and South America have more in common with each other because of this then most other pairs or groups you might grab around the world but my point is obviously there's a lot of blank Columbus were but he just happened to be the guy who did it first Europe was coming to the new world no matter what everybody was trying to find it the faster trade route to the Indies and so it would if it was in Columbus would have been Arnold's mednik whatever it doesn't matter somebody did that and the rest is as they say history so personally I think it's the most significant thing to happen in our species otherwise we'd still be to stranded branches of humans

► 01:47:21

it would be fascinating though like Australia stranded to see what would happen if this is gone on for hundreds of thousands of years that would have been a different story right into your yeah that's a big concern about aliens right one of the big concerns is that there's some sort of a virus that you pick up from somewhere I think that's harder to accept so free Tampa what are the chances that a oak tree would catch whooping cough different species tend to be very species targeted so there's a jump man with a mammal does a vertebrate to vertebrate but so yes that can't happen but the more different the life for MS

► 01:48:15

it is sensible to suppose that the less likely you going to share the same diseases that's all but NASA regardless has safeguards in place but in the event that happens so it's it's called the planetary Protection Program Vanessa Scott is a whole division of mask it's protecting Earth from bugs that could be coming from space on our own spaceship that we bring back and it protects destinations from us there's a certain sterilization levels that we invoke the Cassini spacecraft

► 01:48:47

we plunged that back into Saturn it is death when we were done with it and ran out of money we're done with it plunged into Saturn to vaporize we didn't leave it in orbit around Saturn why cuz it might have crashed into one of Saturn's moons that might have life

► 01:49:05

if someone hits sneezed on the spacecraft before it got launched we don't want to contaminate the life that we were later going to one day want to study

► 01:49:14

that's what we plunged it into Saturday that's why that is why cuz they were worried about that maybe hitting your Ropers like she's dead and you can't track it or guided anymore then it's a it's a while it's a while card am I there other moons that have some ocean water the Water World basically and the concern is that we would introduce life suppose we did it crash and then we go back later and find life and it has DNA just like here but was it our life that we can't aminated with

► 01:49:48

you don't want to confuse the future science of it so that's what that's the plan can you even watch a science movie like science fiction movies I know you had a real problem just right here okay let me let me just go on record okay okay

► 01:50:06

I've been deeply misunderstood with my comments on movies

► 01:50:11

deeply misunderstood deeply deeply and so I just stopped was last time you saw a movie comment in my Twitter stream they haven't you haven't I've kind of just wasn't the Matthew McConaughey movie did you comment on that one the one where they at where am I right now then thought I was just being nitpicky it's not fun going to the movies with you why would you did say that can never happen and so so my intent was my intent did not match how people received my intent my intent is here's an observation that I think if you understood this it would enhance your appreciation of the movie Let me Give an example please do Star Wars the Force awakens they've got you at

► 01:51:05

that's only that introduced bb-8 okay fella cute little fella and in there they have they like the updated Death Star member the old death star has no power to destroy a planet and that's devastating this one

► 01:51:31

it can suck energy out of a star so that the star no longer exists then it could take these energy beams and kill six planets at once it's no longer just a one Planet Killer 6 or 8 whatever the number was it was like high single-digits okay well I did the math on this and I tweeted and I I said first okay if you take all the energy from a star

► 01:52:00

you become a star but maybe they got a containment mechanism I'll give it to them it is the future after all the future but what a long time ago in a galaxy far is another another Another Universe of civilizations okay but they have Lightspeed and we don't so it's the future of our technology even if it's the past of our time who so so you do the calculation and I forgot the number but I got. I calculated how much energy is stored in a star

► 01:52:34

that's enough energy to explode a thousand planets oh my gosh under-represented the energy that it sucked out of the house at all out of the start and I thought this could have been more badass than even they came up with in this movie that is the nature of my comments not could this happen could it not happen let me give you a perspective So So 20% of people just get pissed off 80% really like it and they want more but that 20% they they cut me no slack and I'm only doing this for people to enjoy it if I have that level of hate mail I don't need to continue it I've tried to basically stop. I have these thoughts to myself but I don't have the urge to share them I got to teach you the art of post and drop

► 01:53:29

okay this what you do you post something don't know people going to get mad you drop your phone and you walk away with too many human being I get that but you don't because you still changing your behavior here's my rebuttal rebuttal rebuttal it okay if you're watching a movie that takes place in 1958. Peace and there's a car from 1960 and I'll be crazy and someone who's a pretty good do you complain that the person noticed I know you praise their expertise I get mad at the movie and if you would get mad at the movie if you're watching a Jane Austen. Peace and of 1870 whenever they took place and someone gets out of the carriage

► 01:54:22

what tie dye bell bottoms you would cry foul don't take you up I'm exaggerating it obviously had instead of a derby you would cry foul if you were a costume designer and we would all be impressed by that level of knowledge that you exhibited I am bringing a level of science to bear on a movie that is no different from anybody else's expertise who was out there that we have praised for that invocation yet people are not granting me that Latitude to make those comments I don't like what these generalizations I don't like this is what you're saying people are not doing this no a small vocal minority that are assholes and those the people that you're all turn your behavior for that's what I think is ridiculous about that. Because my eyes are you talking about gravity in the fact that hair wouldn't do that in the space stations weren't that close together on

► 01:55:20

it's assholes my tweets are offerings do not but I'm not I don't want no problems urinating responses that's the problem the only problem is you're reading responses know you do is wonderful 20% freak out is high for me when it's five percent then I take notice how do you say 20% like what are you doing calculations you actually do know a hundred twenty of them that's just run into 20 assholes and so 20 assholes out of the millions and millions of people that follow have decided to reach out and you're altering your behavior for assholes

► 01:56:03

I like those quotes I like when you when you when you break things down cuz I didn't know those things I like thinking about like the hair and grab it was like oh yeah I fucking shit be standing straight up in the only reason why I mentioned it but it was long here would happen to you but it was long hair in space it standing up on head Cheryl's it's a completely obvious thing that was omitted from the filming of gravity yeah but you have their hair and makeup deaf dumb reason exist so so what am I to I might take a poll I might put it by my pillow

► 01:56:35

how do I force feed curiosity have to listen to your feed no one else to wash it anybody anything you pretty offerings out there like you said is that for speeding and not knocking on someone's home wake up bitch read my shit that is true I'm not forcing myself on your property to hear me talk about your movie first I said BBH way cuter than artoo-detoo and I use like 5 days in the way just to just to start a fight cuz that that's a fun fight right then I said by the way aren't bb-8 a smooth metal rolling spherical ball would have skidded uncontrollably on sand

► 01:57:21

in-home movies were moving around on Sand right yeah it would that's why you deflate your tires to drive on imagine Steele tires on a sand dune holy shush oh yeah so if you have a hard surface just below it a dusting of us and then you court yet then you can dig into it connects to the heart surface posted this and people you're ruining the movie for me and then people started these assholes again when you say people you just listening to assholes smart people going to read oh yeah yeah this is stupid it would roll around

► 01:58:13

yeah I'm just a fucking thing some tractor Treads it was actually happened as a result I think I'm getting phone calls from producers to make sure you don't treat them good so you keeping them on as you know I might be most famous among the movie commenting for the final scene in Titanic okay if you knew about this but would you say about the final scene we know where the Titanic sank the longitude latitude we know what time of day tomorrow so at the P of o v the point of view of rose as she's looking up deliriously to the sky is only one sky she should have seen it was the wrong sky

► 01:58:59

whose horse that was worse than that the left side of the sky was a mirror reflection of the right side of the sky did you call James yeah I know the sky I dis is what I do yeah okay so no reply 5 years later I bumped into him at a meeting or NASA hosted meeting with some explorers and some scientists I brought it up to him and he says well at the time I was not overseeing post-production and that's when we added that I'm immature Lee 1in to grovel at my feet for forgiveness did you go to that one of them too but that's not what happened so then 5 years after that I brought it up again when I bumped into him and then he said you know last I checked the Titanic Titanic is earned more than a billion dollars worldwide imagine how much more it would have heard if I got in the sky correct

► 01:59:53

that's a stupid answer from an asshole so that was okay I have nothing more I can say you're cuz he's right okay no he's not he's right out of money and it would have made the same amount of money that's true but that's not the point but he's wanted you fucked up bitch week later I got a phone call so high I forgot he said I work post-production for James Cameron he's producing a director's cut where he's adding new footage and he tells me you have a sky he could use so the Centennial release of Titanic

► 02:00:47

released in April 2012

► 02:00:52

oh yeah that's right yes so it's got so us we actually put it so he did come through so here's what happened Seth MacFarlane calls me up and said I'm making a movie about a talking teddy bear and I need to know the sky over a town outside of Boston in 1985 on Christmas Eve looking North Northeast

► 02:01:27

you got a sky I said I could get back to you a half hour later I sent him this guy that was the sky that the kid wished on to Wilford where Ted came to life Ted had the correct Titanic did not see that one Titanic zero on that so the point is to put people started thinking about it and it's the highest compliment I ever got was Andy Weir who wrote The Martian

► 02:01:57

he said to himself while he was writing the novel he said cuz he's an engineer so he has the fluency and he's also knows how to write he's right creatively he said if Tyson were looking over my shoulder what would he would he tweet about this or not and so that put them on notice to make sure that his calculations were accurate and the Martian is one of the most entertaining Lee accurate Explorations how to invoke science to not die that there ever was so for me that was a very high compliment and it was kind of worth it all of the naysayers that to know that Andy Weir came through on that

► 02:02:37

yeah so why stop I'll maybe maybe I'll change I think you need to learn how to post and drop or just think about it like this post a little walk away walk away just go do something else man you don't need to look at that shit you don't need to look at what people are going to say make sure that there's no typos that's always a struggle I care though I'm sure you do care about what how people can think

► 02:03:08

about what I wrote if it's a way that I had not considered

► 02:03:13

okay I like knowing it it makes me a better Communicator when I'm in front of an audience I'll know what percent will think one way vs. another and I can modify what I'm saying to be more precise into as we say in physics to reduce the impedance between the signal in the receiver so if there's a better match between the communicator and the audience I understand that but if you see call jokes that people just took the wrong way oh yeah I'm trying to just didn't like what I'm saying but surely like you see the word cock in a response you know the person is an asshole right there's just certain things you just see like you're cook like okay enough to listen anymore now I know what you are right you see that still know the times are the fucking Sky instead of fill in the blank I get those are just assholes well I have pretty sure I can so it's not but it upsets me it's that I'm here to serve you not to piss you off or not

► 02:04:13

there's some people that cater they're looking to get angry and not real Avi

► 02:04:24

the arrogance of thinking that you could fix other any plus years of worthless shitbag living with a couple of tweets okay

► 02:04:35

and you know something I don't even want to take you up on that challenge cuz you're probably right I'm telling you you got a lot going to walk away but for most people myself included in those most people I enjoy those tweets and I want something here's one so I tweeted something and somebody responded to somebody else's tweet said you know I don't really like Tyson he's such a he's so pompous okay so so I tweeted back to that person and I said thanks for your note but could you please share with me the single most pompous thing you've ever seen me do

► 02:05:16

and you wrote back and said damn you would have to be reading my tweets with you I can't think of anything right now but overall I really like your work kick put nothing forward that happens all the time because people just shocked that you respond. Plus there is people can get into a stereotype mode where there is doubt that person is that and they're free every state they just decided they decide for the compass is that that's not your science educator

► 02:05:57

I interviewed on StarTalk I guess you were one of my gas but so too is Katy Perry that you're going to do people get pissed off cuz I said she she wrote a song by Boney an alien I don't want to find out what she was thinking there's always ways you can fuck Russell Crowe a few times or what's his name Peters sorry Russell I don't brand what is a bushel

► 02:06:31

what's up Russell Peters a good friend of mine is like so what the fuck my brains out of it you're married I didn't notice so he's like an alien is my point is very odd. He's out there and I'll be like one of those guys that would be in the Men in Black aliens that they're tracking to remember that scene in the headquarters is a big boy wear to cover alien all aliens and you like Michael Jackson who just do something a little different about them you know so it would just be for the really do believe that the believe that there's aliens amongst us again and we live in a free country I'm fine but

► 02:07:31

you know what happens evidence at some point should matter but yet you find out about like Russian agents have been living in like New Jersey for like 30 years of the whole premise of The Surreal story to me really has happened on multiple occasions and so they wonder if the Russians won't do that what are the aliens want to do

► 02:07:52

yeah so just find me one yeah maybe there are doing are you open-minded to that course oh my gosh I would love to meet the aliens have technology that we don't have to compare notes I want to oh my gosh do you go in the movie arrival

► 02:08:12

with a which one the Octopod to arrivals early arrival with Charlie Sheen land 7 freaky things with speaking ink ink right so so they said the physicist and an anthropologist Anthropologist a linguist and I tweeted I said you know if aliens come I would not send a physicist and Linkedin a linguist I would send it up an astrobiologist and a photographer

► 02:08:54

but then the linguist got all upset and they've been started piling piling on what they all are but did you just look up the time what would her profession was so so they all piled up the big moment so I get it that's fine but there are a couple of things so for example there it is making these circles in their interpreting them but it's making them on glass so how did you know we weren't seeing them the mirror image of what he was trying to communicate that's that was not addressed in the film back but cuz your protection is of extreme importance but this happens at all Sci-Fi movies you go up to this thing you get lifted up against the force of gravity

► 02:09:52

that point I was just put down all my weapons

► 02:09:56

what's going on it's way beyond your understanding of the laws of physics yeah you know it's like pulling out your pistol is shooting at the spacecraft across half the Galaxy 2 to come to you what are you doing clearly Superior to you in ways that you don't even know yet so just find another way to do your talking rather than sending bullets their way but is not always the case in every film I mean it's always part of the narrative is that the Primitive people fuck it up for the advanced civilization is coming here to help us or yeah it's never been good for the less technologically advanced civilization ever ever ever been going on right now currently not to sound pluggy but this one of the profiles here is a Captain Cook just a quick visit Hawaii only a couple of times in my life one of times I saw Don Ho in the show

► 02:10:56

he only sat down he's like big and heavy and old and he died a couple decades ago and heat the someone someone answer whatever happened to Captain Cook you know how you reply she said

► 02:11:16

nobody's ever seen him since

► 02:11:24

people listening he's making things like he's picking things out of his teeth

► 02:11:29

Motor Service in Captain Cook of late so is rumors are that you eaten by natives that happened to a lot of pirates so the bridge send Captain Cook to the South Pacific why will you look at his marching orders it's up there is what call the transit of Venus that's going to take place visible only from the South Pacific this is where are orbiting Venus it's in orbit are such that went Venus passes between us in the sun it actually is exactly between us in the sun you can watch it move the circle move across the Sun surface that it's rude device Okay so

► 02:12:11

if you measure that you can learn the exact scale of the solar system so you learn deep scientific knowledge about how far away the planets are and how far away the Sun is from the earth it was not known with Precision before that measurement was made so Captain Cook goes on his voyage to do this what is a pretty expensive Voyage flip over the marching orders open the envelope there use these new navigation techniques that use the sun moon and stars and map every Coastline you find and bring that information back to us

► 02:12:47

within 10 years of Captain Cook navigating the South Pacific as well as the northern coast of Australia and New Zealand within 10 years Britain took control over those coastlines

► 02:13:01

pick a part of the British Empire

► 02:13:04

hegemony at its finest on the premise that ease observing something about the universe but there was a tandem role that he played I did not know they knew that much about the cycles of the planets that they could be there they knew accurately they could be in one of the motivation part of the motivation of knowing any of this was navigation around the globe was navigation to know where you are on Earth you can get your latitude that's just the altitude the height of Polaris the north star above the Horizon measure that at night you can wait that long you know where you are and longitude ships would would be shipped with millions of dollars worth of Commerce would be at the bottom of the ocean because they didn't know where Coastline was the only way you can make a coastline and see if you have good navigational tools and tactics which involves an accurate chronometer a time keeping device for your brick and knowing what the Sun

► 02:14:04

when stars are doing in your sky so the astronomer in that day was crucial to the mapping of the earth and whose mapping Earth is it just geologist for fun no it is Nations wielding power over regions beyond the beyond their own coastlines hear back from 17 what do I get to 1757 James Ferguson

► 02:14:34

1757 here's a quote of all the Sciences cultivated by mankind astronomy is acknowledged to be and I'm doubtedly is the most Sublime the most interesting in the most useful for by knowledge derived from this science not only the bulk of the earth is discovered but are very faculties are enlarged with the Grandeur of the ideas of conveys our minds exalted above their low contracted prejudices notice he lifts mapping the Earth First

► 02:15:15

very talks about how exhausting and a grander so yeah it's an exercise in dominance in hegemony in power under the guise of studying for all this texting help there's an auction to little earlier the the the the Muslims used in extra laid okay dude got by the way what's the number it's a third or two is that I forgot that the fraction around a half of all stars that have names in the night sky have Arabic names

► 02:16:01

because in the Golden Age of Islam a thousand years ago navigation was a big deal and they navigated using astrolabes which is sort of the the the Islamic counterpart to the Sextant octant they were used what is Master P or ask her if you can find a stroller that looks so different discs that you can replace the penny of where you are in Earth to be to know where you are more accurately so this is all navigation so that was almost like chips for a GPS device found that somewhere you go ok aliens been a heavyweight

► 02:17:01

Champions at thousand years ago so you know this is 700 years ago 600 years ago 5 the Ottoman Empire and spreading their influence and they've got they've got astrolabe to this is this song you don't even worry about this in school can only hear about the rest of Europe Christian Europe

► 02:17:30

so this mess device and these are dolls that turn looks like I would have had to complete looks like art it looks like some bizarre looks like an alien and simpler one that has the spirit of an astrolabe but I don't know that if they would have called that an astrolabe the other think they go way back and so detective the most decorated ones or the ones from the Middle East the point is

► 02:18:18

GPS is no different from the navigation Tools in in concept from the navigation tool that Captain Cook invoked for Britain to then take control over all the South Pacific that they did it is where are we and do we know this information with precision

► 02:18:37

and so and what happens if an enemy for steaks out our GPS and we have so much depended on it what are we going to do we got people now working on using navigation by pulsars can't take those out cuz those are cosmic you're sending highly time two pulses that reach Earth in different places on the sky and by measuring them you can and the time delay between one and the other you can actually localized yourself on her surface with extremely high Precision it without any use of satellites

► 02:19:14

what's the future of navigation where you were insulated from a rogue nation that might want to take out your satellite the Trump space horse you know that whole lot of trump haters out there and but if you want to hate Trump rationally you want it not hate him no matter what he said you wanted valuate statement by statement what he says right that's what you want to do he says I want to space force think about that okay and it was Second World War II there was the Air Force except they were not their own Branch they were part of the army was called the Army Air Force and then we realize a command and control in the air needs different kinds of soldiers there cuz they have to be Pilots it's a different kind of decision making different kinds of tactical actions you would have in the in the theater of operations and so it was sensible to spawn off a new branch of the military call the Air Force no one today would question whether that was a good idea

► 02:20:14

today you should know that operations in space in the vacuum of the universe is a different regime that you're operating in from moving through the air

► 02:20:27

your Hardware looks different your your strategies are different your decision your command and control is different so it's not a crate just cuz it came out of Trumps mouth doesn't make it a crazy idea that you might want a space for us if that guy had proposed to space force in 2001 when I was on a commission appointed by George W bush to explore the future of the United States space Aerospace industry how come it should have 12 I put it on the table Air Force generals their former members of Congress people from Lockheed Martin and people say about the Air Force's currently overseeing space United States space command say but he was happy with it and so I find that's okay let's not worry about it if anybody as long as this needs of our presence in space growth but more importantly the size of our assets as long as that continues to grow

► 02:21:24

what else would the military do be on protecting your borders they would protect your assets and our space that sits by day day by day or growing by Leaps and Bounds so if it's not like satellite satellite station and the value of the cost of the satellite is a diet it's at the satellite to you write the the military's now creating a whole other GPS system that is will be exclusive to them then they're going to see the current GPS to what if we done with GPS this hard-earned engineering and physics and orbital mechanics what are we done with the GPS we now use it to find out who you want to mate with

► 02:22:05

oh someone's in your area yeah that's what this was Tinder this is Grindr this is show me Mabel people within 20 square blocks of where I am that's a GPS on Grindr implies you're making a baby have sex with that has a certain economic value to society is so does Uber so do all the things that so does UPS tracking their trucks so it's not the cost of the satellites the value of the satellite to our economy you want that protected make sense is there a space force currently like is it real or they recruited as United States going to make a space force you would offload you would offload the space activities of the Air Force space command command primarily to the space force

► 02:23:05

and then add or subtract from that in whatever way is sensible given the Neath if we have is what I want to see how about that for 12/9 should to be someone a little bit more thorough that's not how it works not scientist anti-government so

► 02:23:31

private Enterprise is not good at doing expensive things that have never been done before I need government money does it first okay then you learn where the hostiles are we to Friendly's are where are they what patent did you need to make this happen then the venture capitalist meeting about what I'm going to make a buck on it has some has some some teeth in it how much will this cost will we know because the government did it and we think we can do it for half that price is it dangerous yes the government did this and they lost two people but we will put Protections in so we won't have that risk what is the return on the investment the government got no return cuz they didn't that's it wasn't the objective but here's how we can bring up so I'll do it second I won't do it first this is how you get the Dutch East India Trading Company

► 02:24:21

they were not the first Europeans to the new world cuz where's the edge of the Earth will you find India where will you be what you don't know any of this

► 02:24:30

be screaming at you sorry you don't know any of this Columbus does it first he can tell you where this food and where there's isn't that where there isn't that where they want to kill you in where they don't they have that information to the mark to the mercantilist and they make a buck after the fact so they come in they come in that's how you do it came about people making planes in the garage the government so this could be a cool thing let's pay them and have them compete to carry air mail new kind of mail mail delivered by air show that's cool so now I make an airplane cuz I want that contract you say no you want the contract you make an airplane that cat has more cargo a better engine you're clever now you just took the contract from me know I make a bigger airplane that's all I see what he did there but now I can improve on that now

► 02:25:25

wait a minute I don't need to carry mail I can carry people

► 02:25:30

this is boring commercial airplane government basically bankrolled it as did prize money for accomplishing certain achievements like Lindbergh no one talks about the fact that do is cash money available to him for having done a flown across the Atlantic solo First Cash Money no kidding I did it for the money has most of them did fly the longest the highest the fastest each of these had money associated with it so this drove the marketplace it was not whether you could make a product out of it initially cuz you got to get over the early humps

► 02:26:12

you got to get through to get to know what it is that works and what doesn't so is there a plan with the space force are they going to make space weapons and spaceships there's treaty in 1962 which we are signatur okay and I talked about it in accessory to war it's at the end I hate I feel so bad doing this

► 02:26:37

yeah I just feel but it but it is for the unspoken alliance between astrophysics in the military you look beautiful with that but they're all here being shot by a Sagittarius that became a weapon in a missile that and Europe your bow and arrow guy

► 02:27:00

last I checked you got a freaking bow and arrow in the back room here yes would you afraid I'll practice when the zombies come and run out of bullets I'm pulling the sword out like the chick from Walking Dead be the best weapon in fact so myself out their weapons asteroid uses of outer space in 1967 there's some modification since then but that's the basic one and we are signature to it it's over the other major countries of the world God damn space pussy shit too

► 02:27:50

it's a beautiful document it since try to be very forward-looking if there's an astronaut from another country who is at risk then you will go to help them without question it's very Kumbaya okay so one of my sodas now that I'm old and tired and I just I'm a realist it's why should we promise to not kill each other in space when we are not successful at doing that here on Earth and we don't even promised and I feel each other here I want to do it here on Earth space will all hold hands maybe they'll do that you know but I don't have that much confidence in human conduct I become cynical over my years and I'm angry demonstrate to me that on Earth you know how to not kill one another then I believe your space treaty

► 02:28:45

so I'm saying here given that there is a treaty it says you can't put heavy weapons in space as I detail in one of the 12 years ago and I will never finish this for a thousand years I bought in the co-op in August Lane who is a longtime editor of my essays that I've written for Natural History magazine just give a shout out to my co-authors so the sort of takes your stuff in stitches together in this particular case there's a lot of ways we collaborated some of them I just dictated entire chapters 2 & but leaving out certain details that would require and needy greedy of sort of research just to get the right numbers in the right year in the right commander and the right this but I know broadly how it happened in what sequence and so then she would take that in shape that into a chapter other places I would say you know this happened this happened in that happened she would say bold that wouldn't fit the narrative as it's

► 02:29:45

together let's drop the middle one and take the other two that's a great so I write that up and she would Stitch it she would graft it is a better word into the rest of what was going on so this is even though their places here where I speaking first person it's actually it's it's a co-written project is that goes through it and it's not I'm just putting my name but somebody else wrote I mean I write I know how to write so we're co-authors on there but thanks for asking it was good I'm so so here's a problem that we detail here

► 02:30:16

I don't want weapons in space

► 02:30:19

okay there's nothing more useless than a space weapon relative to Earth's surface okay I use your skull here okay everything more spherical here I guess not I'm using your skull so okay alright

► 02:30:44

and I said okay I would have weaponize a satellite put a bomb in it and I want to drop over some City some some bad person wants to make that decision right up here so you got it well no it's not just that these I'm not very high above the planet and so you have to like change the orbit to a line it so that it goes over your target

► 02:31:06

show me some go over every spot on Earth the only go over the orbit that had print reset for it okay we can already destroy a city with an intercontinental ballistic missile and we can paint that we can aim a missile to any place on Earth and we'll get there in less than 45 minutes

► 02:31:27

and destroy the whole city with nuclear weapons we can already do that there is no advantage to putting nukes in space if that's your objective not only that but suppose there's a rogue satellite that is messing with you it's beaming energy particles at you and you want to take it out how you going to take it out you going to destroy it oh now you break into a million pieces the thousand pieces not each piece is moving 18000 miles an hour I put your own satellites it risk that's the modern equivalent to in the first world war when it's okay we have a good idea cuz we can't shoot them in the in the trenches let's gas them out so they have the mustard gas Loops the wind changed directions and all the sudden you become a victim of your own weapon

► 02:32:10

such as would happen if space if you going to start exploding satellites that orbit so wore in space is a different thing it's not what you think it would be too what would they do so that piece will you serve outer space treaty allows you to have defensive things in space not offensive or defensive purposes it allows So Pretty Outside though could you do could you I mean could you have and then he won't have anyone have sex with tonight that's the range of stuff that GPS applies to write and took affect our economy and affect our security and then our Navy can't talk to the Air Force the Air Force can talk to it and that would be bad

► 02:33:00

Army's at Wars and no longer fought just by how many soldiers have you lined up at the at the border it's what have you done strategically to render your opponent I just rented through to weaken your opponent or render them incapable of fighting this is why the attacks on September 11th worked because we had a policy that if someone wants to hijack a plane you follow the instructions you do not deny them their request because the Assumption was that If you deny the request they will start hiring people and if you follow the request it will delay when they harm them if they harm them at all and maybe everyone will end up safe it was not in the game plan that they would crash the plane on purpose

► 02:33:51

okay so September 12th

► 02:33:55

you will never again be able to do that to the American plane

► 02:33:59

forget the extra x-rays that we're doing a pilot will never relinquish the cockpit ever again no matter who they are torturing in the back of the back of the plane no matter what they're doing even the shooting people one-by-one because the plane going down takes everybody out so that was a pretty easy door to close literally and figuratively

► 02:34:22

but no one saw it coming you know it drives me crazy when they put that drink cart to protect the pilot and they open the door I'm about that so it's just to delay you a fraction of a second to give them a chance to go in and lock the door it's you have to get through them and they flight attendant

► 02:34:43

that takes an extra second you can't just run and plus I don't even allow you to stand in the aisle while it's happening tell you to sit down sit down and get through the cart and the flight attendant who will be fighting for their life at this point okay and cuz you're the plane is everything but

► 02:35:05

yeah I've seen that opening now you can get through there

► 02:35:09

those ladies I'm going to stop me nobody who really is physically does the point is you can I would never do it if course you don't know I thought about that but I thought to myself the plane that went down I was like I witness September 11th for Black Cat 6 blocks away from 6 walking block Ford jet plane hit no cuz I was blocked from the south so but I've camcorder footage of the explosion big explosion I've ever seen and by the way one thing I noticed is that there was no Shockwave I might even the closest scientists to the event so I was all I could do was applied every bit of physics that I know there was no Shockwave an explosion in no Shockwave

► 02:36:00

and later work if you have to go to make a deflagration wave you atomized Fuel and then you spark it then the flame moves across the fuel it's not a it's not a shock wave it's just a deflagration wave and therefore there's no Shockwave in so windows are not blown out of quarter mile away as they were in Oklahoma city with the wind might bring this up

► 02:36:28

what was I talking about September 11th

► 02:36:31

the plane I said if I was in a 767 and we're about to crash into a building

► 02:36:41

if I was in the last row of the plane how much time would elapse before the front row crumbled

► 02:36:53

and it met me in the back row

► 02:36:57

given the speed of the plane going into the building 500 miles an hour slower than that by then I would say it's a known speed and I don't know but I don't think it was because you can't turn that high speed and Ethel I turn around in a name I have updates about a second less half a fraction of a second it's a fraction how long does it take a plane to go it's only likes when it's going 400 miles of instantaneous basically instantaneous you are you are pulverized

► 02:37:38

pile of goo I think they're planning on making spaceships that can shoot down other spaceships so here it would be between stuff in space that that's all stuff in space like space space space space space how about another task of a space force once you clean of space for so that we can have tourism and not risk Our Lives by a paint chip or you're not going to 18004 bolt the word or nut movie at 18000 miles an hour that'll put a hole straight through yeah right so yeah I would like to see the portfolio of a Spaceport if there is a space for us Broughton the scope of that to include protecting us from asteroid and figuring out a way to clean up the debris of space is there a concept in place

► 02:38:37

no no no boy when you look at that map and I know the map is not the scale but that it shows you the known satellites in space Oh well there it is to scale in the sense that they're there is that many of us that many of its relative distance you can see their orbital line so it feels crowded it's it's so crazy when you look at it it's just like it's just littered and we're continuing to launch new things up there had I joke I say one of the reasons why we've never been visited by aliens issue they came to visit what is all that that's cool another planet I didn't know the map of where everything was and how to calculate their income and get it it's not worth it when you're on your way in you have to think about it going around in a circle using a new planet they had a civilization and they left a lot of crap in their atmosphere

► 02:39:29

you would have. But that's not the debris that's those are The Satellites so if you so they both track debris and sometimes launch Windows of spacecraft pieces of shit that's floating around I'm going fast as I call my dad so nuts for some crazy been doing this for 16 years what year was that

► 02:40:15

the first artificial anything in orbit around the Earth and there was only one thing wow from 57 to 2018 right wow one thing that's crazy now how many things the dead ones and thousands of jets how to clean it up but maybe it's some big vacuum one day I don't know but yeah space vacuum

► 02:40:49

did I feel valuable if you brought it back to her put this over here there was this asteroid that collided with Earth over Chelyabinsk in the Soviet Union in Russian sorry just near the Siberia in the Ural Mountains just on the coast of Siberia border Siberia that was visible to everybody in broad daylight and you have to like a virtue eyes when it happened and they felt a shock wave the Shockwave broke windows and sent

► 02:41:31

600 people that nearly a thousand people to the hospital

► 02:41:35

what happened well because they saw the light and they can't they got up from their table and went to the window to see what happened

► 02:41:43

there's a time delay between the Shockwave and the light is light travels faster than sound travel slow windows in the shock wave hits and it blasts broken glass into their face does a big Band-Aid

► 02:41:57

Collision that we had basically Band-Aids but nearly a thousand people were injured so at an auction but that actually exploded and pieces of it we recovered

► 02:42:12

at an auction I purchased a piece of that meteorite but you or else I purchase

► 02:42:18

some of the shards of glass that the Shockwave at Broken Bow part of it is a shot across our bow

► 02:42:30

that's what that no one died but it's a warning there's no better way to ignore and then to have a Band-Aid cover your injuries that could have vaporize you or rented your species extinct was crazy as the ones that don't even make impact still do devastating damage eyes tunguska yes to 10,000 square kilometers of forest holy shit yeah so 315 2013 and there is a half a ton through is it iron or the actual piece would have been about the size of this room so small home wow somebody that's amazing. That small rock please look at the size of that that's not that big that's what's left over most of it is vaporized on that on the explosion is it came through the atmosphere by producing did that piece of it weighs a thousand pounds

► 02:43:29

I did I give it the weight of it yeah you guys okay over a half ton that's crazy I have to read that temp to know for sure but I think was an iron meteorite I'll tell you something but I have a knife that was made out of a piece of meteorite do I though the beautiful hole Yeah it's a kitchen knife that I see I mine is like a it's like a Crocodile Dundee knife yeah that's not a knife handle for it it's just it's just a metal that would be that was in Catch-22 forged metal with the blade but then you get a pearl handle attached to the basement and unadorned

► 02:44:21

piece of metal that would become a you know that right

► 02:44:30

there is the metal I've never seen kitchen knives the metal goes all the way down the handle and you would see you screw wooden handles on the side so you just need the wouldn't I just need the wood or the or the if I'm patting it would be pearl you know meow like a pearl handled revolver part of history and it's a reminder that if you want to think about the future of civilization you have to include a defense plan against asteroid yeah I bet if they could they would have had a space program to not go extinct is there anything that we're doing now other than occasionally looking up real good looking through with monitoring and cataloging them yeah but we don't really know what to do if

► 02:45:30

princess how would you deflect an asteroid look how would you destroy ask her if you would die and what part of her birthday would hit very delusional ideas about what we can and can't do with asteroids and that drives me crazy you know if there's nothing in place for this project Sentinel you can look it up that is pest ask themselves with organizing World governments to protect Earth from species killing asteroids you need the world because you don't know in advance until it's discovered what part of Earth is going to hit and was going to hit in the Indian Ocean and if Indian if the surrounding regions don't have a space program or you are there countries that do have a space program going to sit idle know what you want to do is you want to have a fund and every country pipes in a little bit of their GDP

► 02:46:30

and then what you want whatever measure it however you want it whatever you think is fair do it the way the way of the UN does it okay to miss a text of the world relative to your wealth and then that money pays to save the world when we find such an asteroid that that's how you get the Sentinel project Sentinel is is just walk this through so if there was something scientist ample time there's possible is a possibility that they could actually Implement so these plans it's all about how much time you have because what you want to do is go out and nugget little bit if you're a little bit you just have to give it a sideways velocity relative to its path towards Earth if you do that early enough

► 02:47:16

list the sideways velocity sorba cumulates right like a ship turning slightly over the ocean of the course of time it'll be V8 quite a bit correct so that angle grows bananas the same angle but then it spreads out and it's the ocean example is perfect there's a Perfect Analogy to view that early enough you do it enough so that it misses Earth and it's still out there to harm you in another day but it won't ready you extinct on that passage how much time do we need today

► 02:47:44

I would say we could probably get something built in 10 years

► 02:47:51

Neil deGrasse Tyson what did you just do I'm in years I'm looking for a year if we have a year with good thing about species killing asteroids is that their large and visible little city killing ones that is not City so the probably at the ocean or Thor land but yeah if it would take out a city

► 02:48:20

yeah there's a branch of government part of I don't fit survive the Trump change over but it's it's part of Homeland Security where it worries about

► 02:48:33

Devastation to a region where the grid is taken out as well so you can't bring emergency services that bring other food water medicine any other form of transportation or communication how much stars there to putting in a more robust grid

► 02:48:53

yeah what you would need is that that's a good point so you need a grid that can show to rewire itself rapidly to then bring power to a region that that's what you would need and would this sort of doing that now making a grid sort of lightning proof you no power surge proof I grew up in New York City where they were a couple of very famous blackouts when a 1966 another and when was it 1978 I think and it was like whoa

► 02:49:28

how should this how is this even allowed you to have a back-up plan you like a way to rewire this to redirect the electricity so yeah you need that even want that and I thought the new grid is supposed to have those kinds of protections built into it but I don't know enough about it to comment

► 02:49:48

yeah what all it takes is one One impact one big one takes out the grid takes off the grid and then what GIF solar power your place we just put in a pet pet solar panels yeah yeah I used to think of it as an escape because we thought of getting it after September 11th at 3:02 something like that but now it's just a good place for me to refuel and do a lot of good writing there in this order thing look out for ticks oh my God overwhelmed with lime. Apparently that prevent you from eating meat and one of those vegetarians bread that was I think it's called the lone star tick and it is from eating the meat of mammals yes makes you allergic to alphago

► 02:50:48

is that what it is it's alpha-gal another great Radiolab podcast Play Chiquitita mammal it's something in red meat yeah yeah so that's one of the challenges you looked at it the other day this week cuz I have quite a few friends that have Lyme disease and it's something you do keep for life and quite a few friends like seven or eight devastating Lyme disease and Tall East Coast. What to do making love in the brush like what are they doing walking around like you know even though I go for a hike on my deck go anywhere no no sit back and look at the other one on the deck but you're out there in the country don't you want to go wander around a little bit no

► 02:51:47

it's honestly not a thought my wife would from Alaska has those thoughts all the time but the power ticks overwhelms her power of curiosity those are powerful people in Alaska it's a different type of their bread differently wrong those people can survive its really interesting comes from the fact that they're all in the same risk factors together and if the if you and I have the same things I can kill us that made out of friends it's also they're overwhelmed by Nature it's like they're overwhelmed by the both its beauty and just the sheer evidence that you're insignificant I would say they're not overwhelmed they are whelmed but is the right amount of well kill the moose in his driveway who like what that's the kind of stuff in the driveway they had to be careful like getting out of the house there cash the Moose when we first went up there my brother

► 02:52:47

wife's sister's husband the loaded shotgun over their bed so that when the door start rattling in the middle of the night the gun is in His Arms Reach and that's good do right now not a real one real one is up there's a look they give me I don't know who visited Denali Park but I saw this 500 yards away it's not any closer than that only park there a little bit habitualized to write know where was that near what part of Alaska is in there it's got its got Mount McKinley's got the nollie the mountain

► 02:53:44

shut up so where is it it's I forgot a geographically but that's not like near the Brooks range right I couldn't tell you I'm not I'm not mountain range closest sheer size of Alaska when you actually look it up over the United States or the super impose at you oh what was everything fits you like five United States most of the world that's in there my face plus you're fucking crazy and trying to place but it's really interesting about Alaska's how few people there right now and I'm in such a long action density really cool City like if you go there you like all this is a cool ass Town nice people but if you go there in the summer bring some things to cover your eyes when you going to bed at night you're going to bed go today

► 02:54:44

it's so-so in the winter when they go to school and dark it's not night time is it Dark Knight and Day it's just kind of like yeah because it's only for a few hours so that's light and then it's dark to see that movie was it called 30 Days of Night vampire movie about Alaska know the vampires came to the movies I have nothing against them. Just know that smarts and I don't can't put that I don't see the romance romance scary the women who

► 02:55:44

dear show I love when women put on a little show she's original female movie Badass but not before and I just reminded myself of this is it Barber rig Barbarella Barber rig Jake is her name she was the woman and the original British series The Avengers he was wearing black leather true martial arts and kicked ass wasn't believable but like when she's nothing like you but you might like looks throwing guy is like to you when you're making fun of me

► 02:56:44

movies about space it drives me crazy people just flip and people who they are and you drive me crazy I think I will post it now in your phone you have the fuck it out of the back of your lock screen is the Stonehenge of Manhattan

► 02:57:13

your manhattanhenge and you have no case on your phone or when I got the phone cuz I admire have thin this that's fine I'd like technology serving me okay so what I do when I got the phone I said let me do this with it it around yes and I reminded myself why do in in the military cadets why do they twirl their gun of what possible value is this in combat why do they do these things with their gun and then I realized you're not supposed to drop your gun ever ever so if you tore all the gun and you don't drop it it means stuck in happened to you and come back and it is always attached to your body so I sent him so when I got my phone I said let me just do this

► 02:58:10

okay let me just do this if I pick up the phone and so when you do that then you never drop your phone does not that I'm a risk-taker is that I changed my risk

► 02:58:29

to make it so low that it is centrally won't happen and you got AppleCare how you going to fix your own damn phone if it will the screen breaks you going to get in there with a screwdriver and pop that bitch out put a new one but keep the key phrase of it if the screen break I also carry relatively expensive fountain pens what happens with that I never lose them oh I see what you saying Jack about the same pair of sunglasses now for a record number of time it's like lenses Zeiss powerful 1923

► 02:59:26

play 923 but I got the same sunglasses now I think 6 months once you get that then it doesn't wrap so it's not that I'm a risk-taker is I change the risk so that is low enough so that it is on par with other risks that you take routine with my smoke a lot of pot dude this is going to drop by keep doing this if you pick up the phone with one hand and it's upside down you you you hold it in places where the center of gravity flips it but you also have some sort of a skin in the back of van Gogh's starry night but it's not.

► 03:00:26

recognize that section is good one of the things they decide to do two asteroids to change their path spray some glue on them and it literally cause more friction in the air and cause them to deviate slightly From the Path know her long. I don't know where you just pull that out of your ass that moment friction so some shit they could put on the if it's traveling right is there something they could put on that wood aerodynamically change its path in the vacuum of space there is no aerodynamics okay so it's moving other side of time it hits her it's too late so it so it's there was a coding that they were planning on putting on some aspect of would it be the act of putting the code that's what you do is you may be thinking of you can put on an asteroid that differently absorbs sunlight relative to the other side

► 03:01:26

that can create a net Vector of motion in could protect the Earth from space Rock threat okay so there you go that's some click-baiting shit okay change amount of sunlight reflected by the way you do it to a part of the rock potentially nothing away from Earth and the accumulated push provided by many thermal photons if they radiate from the wow holy shit yeah somehow you added KY Jelly to this

► 03:02:11

I'm trying to put this phone still here and my friend Andrew Santino he carries his bitch around case free and I admire him braver man than I

► 03:02:22

send it to me I sent you a list of topics do we get all of them. All of them we didn't hit innovation in other countries Mac may I please 2 hours and 40 minutes into that allowed oh my gosh call Tom really are you sure on a percent yeah you sure yeah average podcast right now the average the ones we've done we've all been like close to 3 hours okay are you ready to hood. Okay so let's go back to flying cars let's go back to why anyone would want a flying car in the first place okay

► 03:03:22

what state is only one road okay there was a width of your car

► 03:03:27

you driving on this road

► 03:03:30

and the cars behind you the fastest you could go on that road is the speed of the slowest car on the road but make sense yes this is travel in one dimension that sucks

► 03:03:43

what you really want to travel in two Dimensions so you take the road and wide in it

► 03:03:50

let's make two lanes two lanes in One Direction we have to the other way as well just doesn't matter here now I can go around you

► 03:04:01

your slow ass car okay

► 03:04:05

but then it's fine this is a great Improvement on one dimensional travel now it's two Dimensions okay I can shift left or right as well as move forward or backwards to move and the more Lanes you have the more two-dimensional that is okay the 405 here in Los Angeles what is it six Lanes he just 12 freaking Lanes okay you are fully exploiting the 2 dimension ality of travel

► 03:04:36

you still have so many cars that you say to yourself I want to bypass this traffic

► 03:04:43

if you went from 1 Dimensions to two Dimensions bypassing is just another Lane

► 03:04:48

but now all 12 lanes are plugged and you want to bypass it so you're thinking I need to travel in another dimension

► 03:04:56

I want to travel in the third dimension if I do that I can bypass all these cars I want a flying car yeah okay well the point is we already have flying cars

► 03:05:11

the cold helicopters was Al copters originally invented for that they called helicopters

► 03:05:19

they're noisy they have to create a downward thrust of are equal to its own weight

► 03:05:27

if you have a flying card that's what it's going to have to do

► 03:05:31

they're noisy bear they completely disrupt the terrain wherever they fly

► 03:05:39

so the issue is not that you want to find car you want to travel in that third dimension we already do that I would do that the call tunnels they called Bridges when you have a huge intersection you don't move people through one another

► 03:05:58


► 03:05:59

you build one road over the other you build one road under the other you are exploiting three dimensions so that traffic can go in perpendicular directions simultaneously that's what the flying cars would have given you but we do that at intersections because it would be impossible to move 12 Lanes of traffic through an intersection the cross another freeway

► 03:06:27

New York City has done this

► 03:06:30

we do this the New York you're in the streets there's too many cars you can't move let's move in the third dimension let's build a Subway this sounds like a guy who's trying to sell me something other than a flying car that's what it sounds like bullshit I tell you what she ain't moving in the Third Dimension the New York City subway system moves a billion people a year and they all go in the third dimension beneath the ground through tunnels tunnels that are layered on top of one another will the New York City subway system is amazing I could move that many people it's great but it sounds good as a flying car but it's as effective as a flying car has a flying car on the subway

► 03:07:30

what's up guys rub his body up against yours flying car so you just fly around I'm just saying took a boat tunnels of the air and bridges are flying cars the beautiful thing about a boat that you just go wherever you want to go you don't have to call Air Traffic Control of him turning left I would take you to another dimension not someone will have to know where the hell your car flying car is going to be traffic rules that matter in the street it is with boats you don't happens if a car fails false it's just it just stops flying carpet sales you did right so I want to add another dimension to this conversation in front of me okay I it's a physical debts can I have a lot of sheets of paper and and so I lay them side-by-side I tile the desk with all my sheets of paper then there's no desk surface left

► 03:08:31

I ran out of two dimensional space

► 03:08:33

I want to store more pages on my desk what do I do I get one of those organizers I just introduced a third dimension so now I can have pages in another dimension sitting above the page that was previously occupying another place that I couldn't have put another sheet that's three dimension yes okay if we were two dimensional people we would wonder what happened to that sheet of paper cuz we have no access to that third dimension you would it would just left our universe at this point I'll be trying to back out of the showroom and I'd say thank you but I'm going to go to flying car place so now watch but look at how much you've increase your storage by introducing another dimension

► 03:09:23

now imagine a fourth spatial dimension

► 03:09:27

we don't have access to that but we're now feeling all three dimensions and a four dimensional creature was I will just put it up in this direction will be the fourth dimension in that regard

► 03:09:39

you can't imagine it because our brain evolve in three dimensions we have we can describe it mathematically maybe a wormhole in Pasadena our storage needs would be you can open the door put it through this portal to the fourth dimension Brian and close the door and look on the other side of the door nothing would be there

► 03:10:03

yeah just the way on the surface of the desk if you live in the servant that someone opens the door they put the paper through the door close the door you look around and see where did it go I've no idea cuz you can't even see you can't even imagine the third dimension we cannot imagine the fourth dimension

► 03:10:20

but if the world one day gets so crowded that even three dimensional space

► 03:10:26

has traffic

► 03:10:28

access to a fourth dimension would greatly help that that's all I'm saying good luck with that can people to step through what is this Jamie thing that just came out loud oh look at this that way that's why I look at this thing what is it solar powered

► 03:10:50

the trailer like showing at describing image of sound does it make sound looks like it looks like a human sized drone what it looks like okay what about something like that what about something like this would really powerful magnets also the outer edge so it repels against other drones sort of maglev flying car so if you get so close oh I should be like a force-field each other so if you like it I'll be like a bumper car has but with with cushions yes yeah some sort of electromagnetic force field that you know what everyone agrees that you don't have ones that are attracted to each other but opposed by they see how big that human human sized drone is I've ever heard how loud a drone is fucking loud you can't you can't you have a conversation with shotguns are for you I wish I had never fired a gun in my life first time ever use when it's to shoot a drone that's going to be looking for

► 03:11:50

my window at my apartment this is fucking asshole in my neighborhood he flies around all over people's yards but I can't uncork Rush of what they already think I'm crazy

► 03:12:01

this is the way I know if I shoot with a bow and arrow I'm not sure I'll hit it by the way I did that video have sound company with it has them some a little bit there's music and some description of it now this is what they have on their webpage sure that it's quieter than a car on the freeway why does an electric car North 153rd and 50 feet that's incredible about the same as as a as a car

► 03:12:31

gasoline car is okay today or not in top of electrical energy consumption the same icon for electric cars does for gasoline car and then down no see it says noise it shows highway just car doesn't tell you what sound does electric cars are quieter than a regular car the all you hear is there a drone of the tires but what happens is above a certain speed the the aerodynamic noise is greater than the so it'll landing airplane go to the In-N-Out near LAX which is right near a landing strip yeah and listen to the sound of the planes as they come as they come in for landing most of that sound is airfoil noise

► 03:13:31

which is why you can pretty much still maintain a conversation you're old enough we remember a plane would fly over head in a city and you have to hold your conversation until it finished why what happened

► 03:13:46

engines got quieter and quieter which is enabled people to build real estate closer and closer to airports and not have not having sound problems for what didn't happen overnight it was slow and steady kidding I never I forgot about that I forgot that you have to stop talking when I remember it affect the Shea Stadium in New York City near near LaGuardia Airport

► 03:14:11

take to the announcers had to stop anytime a plane flew over if they could I could announce the game that's crazy when the Mets win the World Series in 1969 mayor Lindsay redirected the airport traffic to not fly over the World Series games was a badass move of him of his mayor Lindsay out there now there it's a sound that's in the in the noise of the street you don't even stop and notice it you didn't even pay attention all you barely hear barely hear it and so next time you're at a Runway when its Landing it's much noisier taking off cuz it's got to gain altitude coming down its most of that sound is glider noise and evidence of this is the noise of are going over there for the fuselage if you you know the moment they deploy the the landing gear

► 03:15:06

next time you're in airplane landing just listen to the Ambient sound of the plane then listen to the sound after they deploy the many times was loud it ramps up hard part because of the sound of the are going around something is not aerodynamic Wheels I just never for whatever reason I never remembered that airplanes used to be louder and I think about all the time flying car yet so you need a new wouldn't want it that would look ugly if two of those colliding in the sky but what about my magnets here to lift away to the magnet solar bro

► 03:15:56

plus you get some testosterone infused guy who doesn't want to let you ahead of them. I love you. Kind of she break the propeller than you both fall out of the sky it's a lot of my rage the heard of testosterone driven men okay but what if they do it but the only way they work is through like the same for a Tesla system that allows them to have you know if you don't need flying cars on the road

► 03:16:30

how do you figure that oh my gosh automated cars and if you were cars are us how so because your greatest asset your car most people second greatest asset twins 90% of time doing nothing

► 03:16:48

you tried to work it is parked if you come home and it's parked 90% of its time doing nothing okay I come to work 10 minutes after you a half hour after you an hour and a half to you I'm using your car use my car you tell you right now you're not using my car no one's using his car forgot this is LA to New York for people with utility rather than something you try to get chicks with on the street corner. He will try to get chicks in New York to don't drop that there's a lot of people to do in spots cost you a thousand bucks a month old baby

► 03:17:28

I've seen some fancy cars and I've been in New York City but that's not it's not it's not a hundred percent it's not a hundred percent yeah but that's just that one stupid spot but you'll be relegated to Elaine we won't be able to drive as fast as they automatically consider that if you want a self-driving car and it wants to change lanes and communicates that to other self-driving cars near it program break. I have a roof soundtrack Joe Rogan upload Russian plot car that's not letting anybody in the Joe Rogan upload should I feel like you wouldn't change anything if there's automated cars Los Angeles I really do I don't think I don't think there be any less traffic I just need to go to make a lame that will take automatic cars and it will go a hundred and twenty miles an hour and watching everybody with their wasted

► 03:18:20

horsepower in there in there in there in traffic stuck in traffic and we passed or Lamborghini doing 40 miles an hour and that was just seems so embarrassing to the Lamborghini

► 03:18:39

you still doing 40 miles an hour we passed the label better it was like why do you have a Lamborghini because there's sometimes when there's no one on the road but I just got to go late at night get a Lamborghini Drive late at 9 what is the peacock feathers as best as I can judge Mount Marvel Avengers nearing and science you should appreciate it then go 0 to 62 and 1/2 seconds just go burning gas gas. If I don't have to do you prefer electrical you had a car if you lived in it for whatever reason the planetarium decided look Neil you're the best ever and we open up the most amazing up whatever it's in Los Angeles California would love you to relocate and bring the car I die if I was forced to relocate and had only one car and I get an electric car

► 03:19:39

yeah I mean funny like a performance class of Cheez Whiz manufacturer isn't emotion you know if there's a dynamic to shitbox it is a dynamic one thing happened to drive something else to make that happen but when you plug your car into the wall you're not asking yourself I wonder where this power comes from you can come from anyone if it doesn't sources right Hydro it could be a pet solar panels or tidal energy you could come from New Mexico come from oil or coal come from any of the hood about clean call have you heard about this clean call the president's been tweeting about it Clean Coal all capital letters I didn't know about that if you can power things with a choice of a dozen

► 03:20:39

sources of energy the new sources of energy compete with one another for your business and the price of oil goes up you say I'm not going to generate power with oil used it and I have a wind farm and I come online I want to sell you my wind energy nice you're the power company you buy my wind energy you send the power to the wall outlet and you charging your car don't know and don't care where that energy came from

► 03:21:05

there's a book called Turning

► 03:21:08

oil into salt look it up so we can mention training oil and salt correct why would you do that it was a day when salt was a strategic commodity yes there was no other known way to preserve food from the Autumn Harvest to the spring set of crops so who got salted there's the book what's the woman's name Miguel Lefton and Corrin okay so I'm now describing the thesis of that book okay turning on with this all so here's what you do so we had salt if I took away your salt reserves you would starve over the winter so everybody knew where this all came from everybody knew how much they're soft cost do you do realize that Grant General Grant

► 03:21:58

destroy the salt reserves of the Southern Confederacy

► 03:22:03

knowing that that would

► 03:22:05

force them faster to surrender because they wouldn't have food reserves to last through the winter

► 03:22:11

all right growing up Ned did not understand the phrase you are the salt of the earth

► 03:22:16

salt give you high blood pressure what do you want what you mean the salt of the earth stop saying that that's not true sodium does finish the fact so they give them something wrong with you for that to happen so don't know what this weather is chronic or not that I agree with you there for chronic high blood pressure is not just but I can increase my blood pressure Now by not peeing and taking an interesting soft but not peeing why would you not pee well cuz you retain the water is pumped through this is what it's all cuz you retain look

► 03:22:56

okay so so why should salt-of-the-earth why is that a compliment I remember thinking to myself but it was a day when salt really mattered okay alright so

► 03:23:08

so what happens the 19th century we figure out how to can foods you can have berries and put them we can you seal you can make my heart serves name of the food is what it is another way to protect your food to have it last through times when you don't have cramps

► 03:23:36

wait a minute Refrigeration compare electrician I can refrigerate food I got a half dozen ways I can eat over the winter and only one of them is salt so now salt has lost its strategic value lost his Mojo lost its Mojo it's still there we still eat salted food as I get a number for the flavor but it's a different thing culture two different thing now it's a matter of choice not a matter of necessity great food came out of that you know the Salted pork in the bacon and very tasty food came out of that movement okay so right now when you buy salt do you know where it came from no I want to see Hawaiian salt Gourmet Salt from Whole Foods just buying Morton salt do you know where I came from no do you remember how much it cost no there's to cheat for beauty even remember that

► 03:24:36


► 03:24:38

if you going to turn off oil into salt what you doing is you turning energy into salt

► 03:24:44

that's the value of a plug in the wall

► 03:24:47

design a car that can run on 5 different kinds of energy

► 03:24:52

did oil has to compete with the other kinds of energy I see what you saying so have an engine that's works on hydrogen have hybrids now that work on two different things it's a start but my point is if you do that then we no longer fight Wars for oil

► 03:25:16

what we fight for now

► 03:25:18

maybe you don't fight for Freedom how about Freedom bro Freedom isn't free

► 03:25:25

Freedom isn't free we just did 3 hours 3-hour crazy how time flies by Astro physics for people in a hurry that's this was old and it's the old ones. Hurry on the New York Times bestseller list six pack in the military 3 to war of course you can pre-order but it's not out yet don't buy this book if you're not in a hurry yeah this is this is a long form book yes gentlemen you have to do some thinking has no pictures I just checked

► 03:26:10

that's why you would never know the grass Tyson StarTalk radio it's on its podcast it's also on Nat Geo what Sirius XM channel 121 the inside channel on my dad and Cosmic look for Cosmos in the spring To Be Alright by everybody

► 03:26:37

thank you everybody for tuna into the podcast and thank you to our sponsors thank you. Black Rifle coffee so the best goddamn coffee I've ever had in my life I love it it's delicious I drink it all the time in fact I drink it basically every fucking day how about that bad ass roast to order coffee right to your doorstep

► 03:27:01

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► 03:27:48

appreciate the fact that you people tomorrow to not one but two fucking amazing stand-up comedians first stop birth mother fucking Christ that's right baby the machine La macchina would you say Bert Kreischer I will be here to hang out and also to promote his fantastic Netflix special which premieres this Friday August 24th

► 03:28:18

very excited I think it's called secret time and then after him Jerrod Carmichael another fan fucking tastic stand up comedian good friend of mine awesome guy and see you know too many credits name all right and then this weekend we'll see you mother fuckers in Vancouver that shit sold out Abbotsford actually Abbotsford Centre Arena

► 03:28:47

and then Calgary on Friday night shout out to John and Jenn rivet my friends from Alberta you fucking people love you and hope you're doing well.