#1233 - Brian Cox

The Joe Rogan Experience #1233 - Brian Cox

January 28, 2019

Professor Brian Cox is an English physicist and Professor of Particle Physics in the School of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Manchester in the UK. Tickets for Brian Cox Universal Adventures In Space & Time available at: US & CANADA: https://profbriancoxlive.com Rest of World: https://briancoxlive.co.uk

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I'm scared I will pick my up me and he's put it online meundies has a great offer for listeners this podcast for any first-time purchasers when you order me undies you get 15% off and free shipping it is a no-brainer get 15% off a pair of the most comfortable underwear you will ever own plus they have a 100% satisfaction guarantee that's how confident they are these the best damn underwear you ever going to put on your body so get you 15% off your first pair free shipping and a 100% satisfaction guarantee when you go to meet undies.com Rogan that's meundies.com Rogan haha my guest today is a brilliant man he is Brian Cox he has been on the show in the past he is a professor he's a physicist he has a live

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show that is touring with a live show on the cosmos and I really really enjoyed talking to today he's just a fascinating and Incredibly intelligent guy and I hope you enjoy it as much as I did please welcome Brian Cox

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The Joe Rogan Experience

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yeah guy named bosses online Twitter and Instagram handles TGT Studios and he makes these I actually had one made for Elon Elon Musk loved it too so we made him one with he made one with like this very beautiful Redwood yes South yeah he has to get them from Russia he has them delivered over from Rochester might have liked listening devices implanted and then was well hey man great to be back yeah great to have you back so tell me what you doing how to keep this sucker like I will. Next week and I'm the UK and then we got the New Zealand all the way to the Arctic Circle

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commercial aircraft in the middle of Miley May raises so if you're interested in the science of how did the universe begin even questions of what may have been that is University channel is there such a thing as before the Big Bang what is the future of the universe how does complexity much spontaneously in the universe then we will take you for granted that we live we there's a big bang and it's all Hobson's just a sky glow stuff and I answered that spontaneously and 13.8 billion and life on it so I know anything about showing the song

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to be human is Tanya little finite life we lead in a possibly infinite Universe how do you make sense of that well it's incredibly exciting to me that there's a giant audience and that what what Neil deGrasse Tyson have been doing and what a lot of public touring intellectuals are doing now they're doing these giant theaters and these people are coming out to see the shows and we're realizing that there's I hate to use the term market for this but there's a demand for this and there's a lot of people or incredibly fascinated by this and it's it's spreading information spreading knowledge in the UK particularly undo Wembley arena for example you have yourself me back then they coming for to think that that they come into it here about what we know about the universe and nature but I think

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everybody asks you having just why my hair and everybody's point is that there is a framework there are things we know about the universe 33 that science scientist and I'm going to tell you why you're here if you want to stop but you need to know that there are two trillion galaxies in the observable universe you need to know the Milky Way galaxy is got 200 billion stars most of us. And I we know how planetary systems we estimated something like 20 billion earth like planets are potentially earth-like planets in the Milky Way galaxy alone asking questions about what is my place in the universe you need to know those things first of all these a framework but it makes you can think when you get to those numbers when you're talking about trillions and billions and all those zeros my brain just goes numb

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there's a lack of comprehension that I'm well aware of like those numbers get thrown about 200 billion every scientist that didn't know scientist that number only even the small number 200 billion trillion galaxies I challenge anyone but it is the reality that we've observed we move to Trillium by the way we think of the Sloan digital Sky survey Maps so you can spread that Across The Wider universe and you got this picture of a vast and possibly infinite Universe me we we know that the Universe are a very strongly suspect that the universe is much bigger than

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case we can see so we have good reason to think that's the case weather is infinite another question then I go see how we say the universe began billion years ago so that's the measurements we can measure the speed of the galaxies of flying away from OC sensual and then you say you can run time backwards if you like to find out when they're all on top of each other and say sleep quite simple measurement and we've done that so we say the universe we know really was the universe was very hot and very dense at that time then we have some theories that the Universe was in existence before that so that means they could have always been that internal and I'm beginning

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is more frightening somehow than the fact that it began that it's it's interesting to read people's minds work what what terrifies you the most in the universe or if I not you the other both incomprehensible the Eternal Universe if there was an eternal universe is that negate the theory of the Big Bang or does it mean that there's a constant cycle of big bangs and then expansion and then recompression or could do say so yes some of them say that there's a recycling Universe I'm so the Big Bang is an event when space gets very hot and very dense and filled with popsicles and that may happen again or some of the other theories does the theory called Eternal inflation which is a theory that the Big Bang is the way that it is

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play special features the Big Bang she could talk about it but inflation is the idea that space space X around before the Big Bang and he was expanding extremely fast no doubling in size in the most popular these theories every ten to the minus 37 seconds so she point no no no no no. We use that draws to a close so you can actually served eyes away in the expansion slows down and all the energy that was taken it was causing that extensions dumped into space. Schools that's what we called the Big Bang and those theories did slice extensions those say that that. Slowing down two times and little patches so most of the universe be overwhelming majority and she's stealing placing that insane speed and that just ain't she stopped and that big bangs so you got multiple

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universe is the most of us gold inflationary most of us and we are in one of those bubbles and that's one of the more popular there is that's another one I mean but that right now I'm aware of what you're saying is I can I can sort of visualize it in some sort of a graphic form but it's incomprehensible like my mind doesn't it doesn't have the capacity to expand The Descent of distance and size 2 that grass is this because of just the way we evolved we evolved here on Earth to deal with the space it's in front of us and now over the course of industrial civilization and education we are now grasping these Concepts that are so alien to the reality that the tangible reality that we exist in every day I'm sure that's right the you know even very simple things like you go back to the Greeks

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center of the universe that why because it feels like it's the same drive as it feels like we're not moving and that's quite deep Point actually in physics flying around the Sun very fast at whatever speed is 18 miles per second does something like that because we're the center of the universe set to understand why didn't feel that way moving you have to go all the way to Einstein really for someone to take that very seriously but explanation and Stephen Hawking's Brief History of Time about is that the idea that you can't tell whether you're moving or not demolishes the notion of absolute space so everything

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most people I suppose you think it why didn't you send it to the big box with in which things happen naturally pictures face in the universe is all the planets and galaxies are placed in the Brief History of Time how king size 2 seconds band sub so in that second the Earth is moved about 80 miles also in space around the Sun so you could ask the question did that ball return to the same place in space on Knox

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and the answer is you can't answer it does from out the spective with no distractions is someone watching all the way around the Sun City would have done something else to the point is you can't say this is a point in space it came back to the same place because that just depends on your perspective cinta 7 su-sun whatever it is cool put difficult. Price is Right I mean that's that's essentially what's happening when your on a plane mean if your throwing a ball up in the air and catch you on the plains happy and is much smaller scale right I mean you're flying at whatever six hundred miles an hour I'll to Casa Grande but doesn't seem to principal

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moving around the Sun that fancy Lee constant speed so there's no experiment you can do we could look at that decay of a radioactive nucleus cell some electricity and magnetism or basketball have a pendulum whatever it is and there's no experiment you can do to tell you whether you're moving on up that for that concept has no meaning because you can't measure it

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sleds Einstein's relativity why is it that we think that the known universe is larger than we can observe

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one point is that it send

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expanding and and we always see the same radiation out there so the glow of the Big Bang but there's some reasons and that one from the theory of inflation to the did the what the best way to explain the universe the properties that we see is that it's very much bigger than the peace we can see so for example we measure space to be what's called flats I don't even say what color is Flats slices of space at different times since I just sliced the universe and inside as a big sheets are you could be curved I like a spherical be curved the opposite directions of like a saddle or bowl and we can measure that I'm absolutely flat

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unusual thing for it to be like it be quiet because what Einstein's theory says is the shape of space station in it that's just a straight line Stine's theory of general relativity put stuff in space and it curves and bends and wolves and stretches it and so on and what we find is a matter of stuff in the universe to have a completely flat universe in the most favorite the universe is way bigger than the peace we can see by looking at pieces are you look a little one mile Square vs right then it's it flat you have to look at big distances and above all to the radius of the Earth bigger than one kilometer anyway I'm on my way to see that actually run the Cub surface one of the ideas about the universe and white he is to be the way that it is because he's way way bigger

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so we just wait a second a little piece and that's why it looks flat and that's one of the ideas when you say flat like that my my brain doesn't understand this because from our perspective when you look up at the Milky Way you see all these stars all over the place so if you're saying flat like a wood how much height and what what do you say so terms of like the way to measure the best way to think about dimensions of space cuz then we can't picture it flies on the table make a Define it so you can say for example that if I draw a triangle on the top of the table then all the angles add up 290° so that we did that on the steps of the big triangle then the angles wouldn't I don't 290° thought you could draw Circle and say what's Pi Pi Pi is the ratio of the circumference of the sun

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go to its diameter that's only true on a flat surface is different if the surface is curved so you can Define flatness so when you put in when you're saying flatness how what is the height and what is the width like if you're even talking about it as if it's a table there must be some sort of a there's a dimension to it correct generalization of geometry that we can picture it into Dimensions but you can you can draw it you can quite literally even imagine sending light beams out actually we can look at the Disco the most distant light we can see which is something called The Cosmic microwave background radiation which is Imagine look at notes you look at the Andromeda galaxy which we can see with the naked eye here now you can say that so much distant object you can see with the naked eye and it's about to two million light-years away also which means the light

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scenery news to get to us so it's a long way away but it's very big a billion light years away than the lights of kabillion use to get to us so you see how it was a billion years in the past. She looks so far out that we can see almost back to 13.8 billion years ago which is very close to the Big Bang so we can look so light that began his journey before they were galaxies and that's it the oldest lie in the universe wanted a piece of evidence of things I don't believe in the Big Bang dancers what you can see it that you can see it pictures of it that light social structures on Rick light and which we can use as a ruler so quite literally as a ruler on the sky and then because I've been traveling through

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we can see how that rule is being distorted as as the light travel through space and so we can even with a space is flat so I don't have it warps if you like just from that measurement is it useful measurement is it possible that in the future will be able to see past 13.8 billion years knotweed lights not because it what is that before he was released 390000 years after the big bang to be precise number you might say I had you know that before that time the universe was so hot that atoms could inform so you have to cook electrically charged particles are just too hot for like drums are going to all be around nuclei to light so you just couldn't like one and then when it was expanding cooled past the point where dancing is good for and at that point it becomes transparent really almost instantly in a cosmic X guile and saw the light.

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travel in straight lines through the universe and we can see that light so we see the light from that time but further back than that it's opaque so you can't see past that we'd like but you can potentially with gravitational waves which is this measurement that got the Nobel Prize a couple years ago the ligo experiment here in the United States and that's it looks for wyffels in the fabric of space and time I didn't principal you had a big enough detect so you could see the ripples from The Big Bang so you couldn't you could take an image of the Big Bang in gravitational waves which we need an enormous of space-based detector that we build anytime soon obviously this is all through equipment and Technology that's been invented of the last few hundred years and perfected is it possible that things could get better and you could get some some ability to detect things even in a far more distant way

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I'm crying because you need to go off in Seattle in Washington state and Xavier Louisiana sleep up two detectives are they basically so if I know three mile long laser beams and that just sit and measure the size of stretching and squashing of space that the ripples in the fabric of the universe go through and what they've been observing collisions are black holes so you can imagine I have extreme I could colliding black holes is it incredibly extreme event so it shakes the fabric of the universe and the riffles come across the universe and these laser beams we should just basically realest can detect it they just saw ring almost like vibrates is the ripples go through in space and time that keeps on the other Nobel Prize last year for this

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Gracie's living physicists is a storm in time so you got time to storm its peaceful image changing length is less than the diameter of an atomic nucleus so the change in in length of the beams but we can do so this time a collision of black hole the idea that you can detect that that black holes and they were about 30 times the mass of the Sun each other and spiraling into 1/3 the speed of light an accelerated two-thirds the speed of light in a tenth of a second and then he was

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I think I'm right it was something like 50 times the energy release that the power of all the stars in the observable universe glowing and it was something like 50 times and that have energy for tiny fraction of a second but it's an unimaginably violent event and that's why I would detect this can see the ripples that that makes in space and time is it, is 2/3 of the oven and also two neutron stars colliding we saw that as well with it just incredible machine would you like fries now there's a supermassive black hole the center of every Galaxy there is also other black holes that aren't necessarily in the center of galaxies Stars so they are very big

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is gravity squash Easton I need that sufficiently massive then there's nothing that can stop the collapse and said I Collapse as far as we know two points French the infinitely dense point where we know what happens if we don't know what happened right in the middle is from which light contest guide so nothing can escape a black hole and what happens to them do they travel they moving through space distill stars that they surrounded this region where he fall in call The Event Horizon I need to go across the Horizon then you all going to the sensor the wrong way of thinking about it we should quite cool which is better the time and space are flip

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text a wig going to tomorrow there's nothing we can do about it we are going to tomorrow in the same way if you fall in the cross the Event Horizon of a black hole do you are going to the middle of the singularity is, so that's got your future every every line of your future points to the center of the black hole so it's going to be no escape the prison squash to an infinitely dense solenoids not every star becomes a black hole at the end of its life since my son and their venom All-Stars is quite small and when it collapses Force if you like which is caused by the fact that electrons don't like to be very close to each other so it's called the Pauli Exclusion Principle but essentially what happens is that says they got squashed clothes and clothes together they move faster and faster to so get out of each other's way

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if you like and that makes a force which holds him up and so that creates what's called a white dwarf star so so you can have a blood with mats are there by the size of the smallest objects which is the same thing four neutrons and they they move faster and faster so it is massive enough for the overwhelmed the electron thing than the electrons sofa Crush into protons and 17 neutrons and the whole thing stops again it's a neutron star can be elite one and a half times the mass of the Sun let's say but it can be ten miles across held up by this but if you go even bigger than even though

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can hold it up and as far as we know that there's no known for us that we know of their can hold hold the thing go to massive collapses in collapses when you get a black hole we try to put them in the perspective of the Earth the Sun is a million times bigger than the earth and is this neutron star is we just had one and a half times the mass of the Sun but 10 miles wide is called LG m1v fast and then it was called LG I'm well and they thought was Little Green Men and I'm

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so yeah we received it this one called The Crab Pulsar which is in the Crab Nebula which we saw the Supernova explosion that's when it explodes from a neutron star and we saw that in 1054 ID what wasn't there is some speculation that our God or our solar system at one point was that was a binary star system and that one of those Stars had become a door I don't know someone has read something about that in relationship to the dense object that believes outside the Kuiper belt periodic bombardments from are in the Taco Bell so yeah.

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died and we don't know what caused all those but sometimes their impacts from space that seems clear and say that yeah there are theories that the objects in the Kuiper belt that sends loads of comets and asteroids any words to the inner solar system because look at those theories it is a possibility that there's something out there that correct me if I'm wrong something called a galactic shelf like that it gets to a certain space in it indicates there's something far larger out there at ya know the exact mass of objects have the I don't know that I'm a big planet for example but you're right the Kennedy the Camby stuff

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you have a light year away or something like that and I'm sure it's interesting because it's incomprehensible the distance right and in our minds how far that must be out past what we used to call Pluto but for whatever reason that becomes more interesting cuz it's in our neighborhood whereas if they find some distant star system and that it might have a planet that's similar to that doesn't seem as compelling for whatever weird reason it seems like there planets around those now that was interesting because we could conceive of going the right way and some others. Schultz we should send a little probe out to her this and said the Alpha Centauri system and The View

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money to do that a hundred years travel time without current technology way back when people building Cathedrals people used to retain Lee stop projects that would take a hundred years to buy fruits that we couldn't imagine going to come spend the night and I think cuz then you've got a solar system another solar system that you could go and visit conceivably

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conceivably yeah I mean what kind of speed we talkin and how long would it take to get There Yet full light years are 700 years so whatever the hell you would have to essentially do what they didn't like the Ridley Scott alien film and put people into some sort of wouldn't be possible for a true relationship in principle you're right if you can send a little robot spaceship that you can send a crewed station I am of the opinion as time goes on and augmented and virtual reality gets better and better that

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doesn't really totally make sense unless we're talking about colonizing someplace to send biological life to another planet if we can send some probe that doesn't have to worry about the biology being affected by radiation or by the speed of travel or even buy food we can send something out there and almost be there by virtual goggles virtual reality goggles or something else like curiosity the same as of the moment that's really cheap compared to sending people to Mouse and so quite often the scientist who wants to find out about the world will say we should spend it on Roblox we shouldn't spend it on people think crude space exploration is in in some ways I mean clearly tree with the moment that humans can do more than robots so we can explore the place

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for now yeah but I think it has to be it's about something else I mean it's about it and it's not only living and working off the planet which I think is quite persuasive argument actually we've already industrialize nerathil bit so it's already a multibillion-dollar industry that communication satellites and whatever it was already up there and still learning to live and work in space is I think a natural extension of Iowa have a civilization plus the fact they point out that the demands of results is available just slightly above our heads is best for example in the asteroid belt is enough metal I think to build a skyscraper

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West Point was that that the energy from the Sun is all about the results so you could almost a mansion trying to zoned residential at some point in the future to protect the planets and do you have the industry off the planet for example and they send these except that they said maybe I can only become sensible so I think I think I think expansion is good and I think we will expand and I think we will expand night Woods because it's not much room left on this planet to expand so I think that's a whole different idea operating as a civilization on the frontier which we have lost on the earth cuz there is no friend to your left and so I like the idea that much

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he's right. That's the only place you can go so they're the reason I was a planet we can go to other than Miles that you kind of got two Jeeps are us at Sony PlayStation has to be Mouse and everything that you need some of that that's a different thing you want to find out stuff you're right if you just want to find out stuff then you send Robux but as far as expanding actual civilization bring it to another place things that freaks me out of people get depressed about living in Seattle or I mean you're going to live on Mars I wouldn't I wouldn't have breakfast places in Colorado and I wouldn't want you to do it the once you got there trout in the river and then The Meadows are green

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I'm not going to go to that so that it is true because we know something about history of Miles not quite a lot about history of miles I didn't set any clear that that was Walter Olmos Italy oceans rivers is almost certainly still there so I would say we still would have found large quantities of ice now the couple that with all the minerals in the resources that we know that and you have everything you need so that's the thing about miles is it quite nice relative to everywhere else other than the account go to Venus something degrees and 90 atmospheric pressure

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quite nice but I wouldn't go there I agree with you relationship facts like if you went to Mars and then somehow or another in the future that they were able to get back to Earth your body would have a real problem with that but yeah so you distill gravity some protection from the Eid probably won't sleep in the caves state did this note magnetic field that which is a big impact Basin the button lady is so deep you can fit in it so you put Mount Everest in

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what is 7 miles so you could go there occasionally on the floor of that crazy during a serious culture and it's kind of really sticking up send sort of do you watch those movies and shake your head I like a crow Star Wars how's my when I was 9 years older than you watching it now

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cuz I claim that that physically put that in principle that possible and he was trying to say that down but what did have to loop back around cuz the lights not continue until like the fact that goes to a certain distance and pauses and bounce off each other so we can Collide photons together cuz it is true that a light can bands of it can hit light dry very very high energy but when they press that button to a certain distance I wasn't even agree with the distance thing that I asked to it says you're swinging it around you wouldn't have the leverage of a long thing

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so why not make it really long cuz it wouldn't be difficult to swing around like you could stab someone with a lightsaber a mile away that's why I make it so short you have to swing you might be interested is it like at the stop at the very end

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which would be a riot album everybody would look cool with it if there was no kind of thing with me crazy about Star Wars is not the lightsabers it's the lasers when they're shooting the gun so my why can I see that but I can't see bullets supposed to be way faster than a bullet why is it easy to see this I'll be so angry I feel like this is so dumb I could go warp speed in this Millennium Falcon and travel the speed of light but for whatever reason these lasers are so slow you could duck are the wave I'm done so dumb every single filmed at sunshine movie very very underappreciated movie

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when you watch Jay and there was move slowly over the years and so the India babe science and for what he was apparently he would do complex mathematics and spare time but fascinating guy that must have been yeah Explain the ending of 2001 on Instagram

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I know this is kind of a simple version of it you just said well the cepher intelligent beings take him in and put him in a zoo basically and watch him grow old and then send him back to the superbeing yeah that they just put him in this room which is kind of a bad version of a French Chateau wasn't and then send a message via is a superbeing that's Cubix strange it's it's it's a weird because sometimes people get things right liked in HG Wells predict a significant amount of scientific inventions in the future

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what is she said I mean depends which one does not there's a moon one wasn't that we did an enchanted mean how many time machine is forget I always like science fiction can let your imagination run during a dressing for that restriction I think did you like the Alien series I loved it school film club in the 70s they went to the first films they put on the three films are the 11 and it was a lie in the original alien is probably the greatest horror science fiction movies of all time one of my all-time

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but I really like the newer ones as well like I like Prometheus and I really like Covenant the last one. The whole idea that the engineers coming back in time and lost his way and disappointment yes I agree with you but it was more more exciting and what would sell so Preposterous like if you went to another planet like the last thing you'd be doing is just breathing in the air right I mean we have to be really care if there was a life on the planet we have to be really careful not to contaminate but be not to be contaminated right

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gravity because the spaceship has gravity and then when you land the grab it is exactly like earth a perfect you know what are the odds that you would find a planet that is exactly like even if a plan was one and a half times the size of Earth it would have far more gravity that's that's really common for a planet to be like just a little bit bigger and then we would be like to fuck everywhere be walking with you we be getting crushed right I agree with you supposed to let the you know what the story play out how many Sunshine was the premises is silly that it's the premises the sun is dying and we going to go and fix it

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Finish Line rapid response to the power of nature and it's about defying this thing and was you can get an ultimately you got mad if you remember the film The Pinback who's the first person that went to the caption the first mission to go to restart the sun we should demand fit but then became a religious fundamentalist essentially decided he will become the last the last man the last human and so he wants to be the last he wants to send to die and he wants it to take Humanity with it and he decides to make that happen so he stays there waiting for the second ship I like those ideas that

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what is one of the great things about cosmology in the end of True sense of the word Scale of the Universe and black holes Collide in a nose thing it is very frightening but also the two trying to understand a place in nature and the size and scale of the universe and I have your tiny presence within it is valuable so that you can be terrified but also inspired and interested if you want to find if you want to ask questions about what it means to be human a means to be alive but I think you find the answers in confronting reality which is that we live in a terrifyingly vast Universe how was in the universe that we cannot comprehend

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that's what you got to face because that's reality so you can't hide your head in the sand and just duck it and it sends him it can send some people crazy I'm sure it and it is really interesting that we need that suspension of disbelief in order to sort of make a film on Space you almost have to like oh wow this is really how it be but this is how you have to make it in order to fit into a 2 hour movie and then the film Sunshine becomes about you then you can have the feeling that something else yes please don't do that what did you like Event Horizon I always wanted to ask about their their concept of propulsion that you could almost like space would B-flat you fold space over and you would intersect those two points and you would be able to travel vast distances instantaneously right I'm out doing a terrible job of explaining I'm sure but is that a concept

► 00:54:18

people's actually considered it in general relativity Einstein you talked about before it's you imagine space and time as a sheet to see imagine is a thing so literally sheet surface energy into that that it cuz it's in the store so I can stretch it and make it shrink and so is the response space and time to matter and energy if you let the simplest measure will be there the Sun so you put the big stereo ball of stuff in that and the eight warp space and time search to do the nice straight lines something to traveling minors in business Street at work space turns into an orbit and that's why you can act as a kind of see things that are behind the Sun so light bends around the Sun and because it should traveling through the kids

► 00:55:18

because it's just rolling my own business through the Cubs face an example would be that give rise to something looks like a force of gravity so the best analogy I know I'll be your friend and I were going to walk Gmail's so we can set off my side I thought I was in miles of an equation we going to walk to Noah's what's going to happen if you walk in straight lines you don't change direction you didn't do any acceleration for the straight lines with lines of longitude on the surface of the Earth so as you go further and further north you got clothes and clothes together maybe carry on to the pole you bump into each other but nothing's happened I know one's know what there's no forces acting it's just that you're moving on a cub surface and so you got closer and that's basically Einstein's theory of general relativity

► 00:56:18

Event Horizon the idea of a phone so you can so all you have to do is put the matter in what kind of stuff you put in to make the geometry fold in that way and you can do it you can do it so you can you can write down that geometry geometry I think it's called Edition textbooks so you can do that too to have a warp drive the question becomes what sorts of stuff would you have to actually put into the real Universe to make it walking that way and it always is usually the kind of stuff that doesn't exist potatoes that do not exist in nature as far as we can tell but you can still write the geometry town and Einstein's theory so if you have the significant force or mass or whatever it is you had that stuff that doesn't eat

► 00:57:18

it is a concept that so the geometry exists that connect distant regions of the universe what she could use a time machines can do all that in the theory in nature have the right stuff to do it but that stuff is not real far as we now know what would have to happen like you would have to have enough power or Mass to get to be able to fold those two things together like it tends to be weird stuff like stuff that has a negative pressure or something like that sir stuff that has physical properties but it just bizarre. No matter or energy has to make to make the geometry happen but it's conceivable in theory that this could exist even though it doesn't

► 00:58:18

ultimately so William Ho's had a good example that would be quite literally it was so you fly to Australia are you could tunnel straight through and get that quicker a little graphic up there so the question is so you can do that and Einstein's theory you can write down that geometry and there it is the first question is can you make it and then as we said we don't think that stuff exists the second set of theoretical bits of theoretical work which you if you had a wormhole then what would happen if you tried to travel through it seems to happen is that is that they become unstable the moving anything tries to go through so you kind of feedback that stuff going through

► 00:59:18

but my kids throwing actually we just mentioned him again the Nobel Prize flashy if the gravitational waves dancers we don't fully know but most physicists think that even if they existed they will be unstable and as soon as you even trying to transmit information through them send a bit of light through then there will be some feedback and I Collapse the reason we don't really know absolutely is because you need what's call the quantum theory gravity and we don't have one so we don't have the theoretical tools to be absolutely sure that these things would be unstable or don't exist in nature but we strongly suspect that they don't

► 01:00:06

does Stephen Hawking write a paper so the chronology protection conjecture and conjectures them for him would be such that you count at stable wormholes and you can't build time machines that if you send something through it would destabilize it and if it didn't destabilize it how would your physical body deal with the stress of that it doesn't have to be that you can you can build them that's called the tidal gravitational force what's the difference in gravitational pull across your body if you want to get should you fall into a black hole there before you actually get to the singularity so you can get its called spaghetti, yes we should make quite small but they still race tides on the oceans so that can be if you think about something like a black hole that could be massive difference in gravitational pull

► 01:01:06

add to your feet and so I can stretch you out and see what you can with William Hulsey you can you can write the Geometry Dash Theory that you could go through so you don't have to be destroyed up anything way it happened to you what you have to have some something protecting you some Force some some sort of a stitch of the evil through exist you just you just go through your spaceship but there's nothing inherently in them that says that you would be ripped apart. What are your thoughts on alien life on life outside of this planet or something you think about I think that must be even in the solar system I would not be surprised if we find microbes among those are some of the moons of Jupiter or Saturn where does liquid

► 01:02:06

like Europa and the reason is you think about us is because then so it formed and there's no life is a ball of rock and almost as soon as it cooled down we see evidence of life so suddenly 3.8 billion years ago possibly we see evidence of Life of that somewhere along the line geochemistry geochemistry became biochemistry idea that if you get gradients of temperature and acid alkaline and the conditions that naturally present on the surface of oceans then komplex carbon chemistry spontaneously happens so we have a we know that life almost certainly we know that life began on Earth

► 01:03:06

probably didn't write down on that so that means that at least he has that happened and that we know that the conditions that led to the origin of life on Earth with a 3.8 before billion years ago and we know that that present on the road for today so I don't see that there's anything special life is just chemistry the idea that geochemistry become by a chemistry is not fanciful because it happened here so I think that given the same conditions it would be surprising to me the same thing didn't happen in that life begins so I that's one of the two tests that is one of the great friends he is of Signs Now from the great challenges which is why another reason Bridge City Miles because we know those conditions with that we know the way to hide your thermal vent systems on the floors of oceans are mouth 3.8 or 4 billion years ago

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it would be good to know is what I said is right and then the way we find out is to find life or evidence of past life are you aware of the speculation that was going around with how how recent was it that occupy thing the octopus octopus eggs they there was a group of scientists that were speculating that it's Paulina panspermia the idea of panspermia it is possible that octopi had come from somewhere else some frozen eggs that actually come from somewhere else and and landed on earth like legitimate scientists are constipated not morons think I'm seeing this

► 01:04:44

they didn't but I mean sometimes it doesn't have to be unlikely this full billion years old are the oldest rocks ever found any that we know that microbes can survive in space for example that isn't mad is still extremely similar biologically to us I mean the difference is negligible do something about RNA and DNA did you find that article on a website on a paper

► 01:05:44

published in the progress Center in biophysics and molecular biology to talk about this possibility for other people that disagree with it though cuz you're not supposed to be extremely similar to us so that suggested, Norwegian to me. Suppose the cancer argument you could you could Advance would be there's only one way to do life so you could say that actually given because the laws of physics and chemistry the same every way so maybe maybe DNA is the only way to do it so that's why they're so similar to us as well

► 01:06:24

yeah that didn't surprise me because I mean their ability to transform their out texture their color instead almost instantaneously camouflage abilities that really don't exist and of the mammalian World under microscope and you would have been sounded so the only way that that would make sense as if all life comes from basically the same kind of building blocks and just varies depending upon the conditions and where it takes place that's the only way it can be done given the given the building block the tool kits the laws of nature in the the elements in Salem that we have in our universe we have so many different life-forms on our planet but if we

► 01:07:24

found anything that's remotely similar to what we have here on Earth on another planet would be such an incredible Discovery like we sent be kind of frog on the moon the world would stop right very surprised anything anywhere that is any in any way similar an insect on Mars that is what we do it wasn't until around six hundred million years ago also maybe most 700 that you see any complex multicellular organisms that's all surface something like 3 billion years are single-celled alone one of the reasons why I would guess if I had to guess I would because I'm very quickly on this life

► 01:08:24

multicellular life insects plants intelligence I would guess we'll be very rare because he took so long on Earth together and we just slime 3 billion years of slime that happened how did it go from slime to giraffes Unsolved Mysteries in biology is that we seem to be all complex creatures seem to be cells within a cell nucleus and all that kind of stuff and they look like dead Emoji between two simpler life forms and bacteria and the thing called in Archaea and I'll tell you so it looks like somewhere in 2 billion years ago whatever it was he slow motion the bacterial cell got inside the archaean

► 01:09:23

I'm survived as as a symbiotic organism essentially and then somehow unbelievably managed to reproduce and replicate in that configuration and that just seemed to be the origin of all complex multicellular life on that so he's called the Fateful Encounter hypothesis and if that's true then it's just a bit look a nap and once and that's why we're here now when going to look consider like how many billion Earth-like planets did you say existed in our solar system alone 20 billion something line at volume 10 Styles so the odds of complex life out of art incredibly fortunate situation but the odds of that occurring on any of these billions of other planets recessed light

► 01:10:23

like to know I was species been around a million years or something it was double that triple that on the average suddenly that's the age of the universe 3 or 4 billion years older actually it looks like house solar system might be quite unusual in that respect that because it had the planets got three main stable in a stable orbit the Stars got three main stable large Moon sock some incentive Theory called the Grand tack Theory which is very hard to explain the evolution of a solar system so that when you do computer models of

► 01:11:23

telesystems you don't tend to get four rocky planets too close to the Sun and full big gas giants feather out and then one of the best theory is that jeep set that they tend to form these big gas giants and migrating what's 202 * phone almost all the computer simulations just a big gas giant orbiting all the dust around the star they tend to drop in woods and it looks like Jeeps that did that so it looks like it formed and came in and came in almost 2 and Mazda Obits today and then cleared out the region around massage maybe she's maybe the reason Mozzy so small compared to the other to the venous enough

► 01:12:07

Honda in the computer models the interaction between Jupiter and Saturn and Jupiter coming in before it gets to be a and they both get dragged out again and set it to where they are today and said that that seems to be one of the best days for the evolution of a solar system so what are the chances that minuscule my tiny that that's the thing I think about these rocky planets oldest civilization on them I think you need it I guess you need quite unusual solar systems not be gas and you need quite unusual stability on the planet for the billions of years and that's why I think we might be quite lucky how does bode's law work as a method of detecting if you look at the mass of a planet you can accurately detect how much mass and the size of a neighboring planet

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I think it wasn't just being in the position to the old bits I think where it is found put more planets in so that the mass of like if you measure Mars you can accurately depict where the next planet close to it would be which is

► 01:13:47

it or not there's nothing to that really other than to say that most simulations of the solar system look like I'm cycling fractions as much stuff in it is it could have so the planets in nicely spaced and you're right given the mass of them that depends on how close another planet can be before the interaction goes wrong and it gets thrown out into the galactic space Also points to the fact that sells not stable of a long periods of time to not like clockwork things is not like me a Newtonian Clockwork and it just goes on forever then not like that that they evolve and planets can shift Obits and change we know

► 01:14:46

types of the moon for example it covered in crisis and that was cause they all seem to hit some at the same time and it's about 3.8 billion years ago also bibimbap and so we know that you look at crates rewrite Simon on the moon it all seems the big peak around that time seems to be ridden at cheerleading Atwoods in the solar system and into the Kuiper belt basically all tools of cobalt and causing all sorts of havoc and everything comes into the inner solar system so those things happen didn't happen when life was established on the Earth

► 01:15:26

yo it's always extremely old stuff that The Descent shifting took but but how long is how long is the solar system been in this particular stable situation that's in now is $0.08 in the stable at any point since then then we likely wouldn't be here right do you think that it's possible you ever entertain the idea that it's possible that we are the only intelligent life in the known universe civilization in the Milky Way

► 01:16:12

astronomy and cosmology being paid the framework within which you have to think if you're looking for meaning or you looking for how we should behave even politically you know that has a bearing to me imagine that we the only place where there is intelligence in this galaxy should we behave should we not we stand in the way of tiny and fragile things and insignificant physically should we not respect because I would go as far as we know where else when meaning exists in the Milky Way I talk about it did it quotes when he says what is the meaning of it all

► 01:17:06

should I cycle the value of Science and so what is self-evidently true is that meaning exists here because it means something to us that's kind of a statement your life means something to you and me and said meaning exists but I think it is a local and temporary phenomena I think it's it emerges meaning emojis from configurations which is what we are we are simply that we nothing more than that with very very rare configurations bathrooms I think I'm so that means that if you go all the way down that line of logic we are the only Island meaning in the Galaxy meaning only to ourselves it means something to us because we're the only ones who can grasp the concept and we are finite we are finite organism we have this temporary existence while we're here and to us there is me

► 01:18:05

I don't know any other way to define it called if I don't think that I think it's more wonderful and I'm more challenging to us cuz we have to take responsibility for it to say we should operate search that we all hit in this galaxy there's nothing else I'm sure I'm sure they'll believe that the place is the question is how often does it happen and I widely spaced out of civilizations Galaxy on the average but as you said it you said it

► 01:19:05

throw listings this spiritual things that you think about in the emotional things you think about you you are responsible for that you are that for about the whatever that is it exists in you and it will only exist for short amount of time and so

► 01:19:23

but make the best of it will be my date so unbelievably compelling though to consider the idea that somewhere out there there's another civilization that maybe even more advanced than us and this this thought of it is just so attractive it's it's it's incredible that are even slightly coming then that should be civilizations ahead of us because there's been so much time it's like so compelling is a civilization that is what the time said the idea that there is nothing no civilization zeros in a hundred million years ago

► 01:20:23

they've been like if they survived when we've been we've been around we've had science let's say since Newton most what we've done we've gone beyond the solar system with voyager we've walked on the moon and we where we're about to go to miles I would think they're about to begin my run solar system to be tonight in 500 years imagine a million years in the future so I would go to Sammy Paradox because if you imagine the civilization that's a million years ahead of us they should have written that presence across the sky by now they should see him I mean you'll see us if we survive 7 million years into the future we will be exploring the galaxies we will have spacecraft that are going to with the Stars we will be doing it

► 01:21:23

signature will become visible I'm sure if we last into the meeting so would we choose to not do that Here's my thought on that is uncontacted tribes like do you know about the the gentleman who was the missionary who visited North Sentinel Island and was killed by the natives North Sentinel Island which is a really unusual place because they branched off from Africa 60,000 years ago and they've been living on this one small eye on the size of Manhattan and is Wells we know there's only about 39 of them left somewhere around there and we can't we not supposed to contact them white people are knots what we were supposed to like leave them alone and there are rare try when they find them in the Amazon The uncontacted Tribe initial instinct is back off leave them alone to think that perhaps Universe like if there is a civilization that's a million times more advanced than us and been around here for billions of years of life is supposed to quarter million

► 01:22:24

why would they why would they let us know like what they look at us dropping bombs on each other and polluting the oceans sucking all the fish out and putting clouds into the Skies of dirt and particles why would they Lily quickly screwed monkey so good that they know they're so far beyond where they need to be before they could join the Galactic Civilization Network or whatever it technology so Advanced would be difficult for this to detect any we tend to think of it when you say written across the sky I'm thinking of Starships officiants a better way to do things so it's possible I suppose the space probes all over the place and its energy that we just

► 01:23:24

Sam I suppose that is possible my thought is that where we are headed it seems to me that there's some sort of a strange symbiosis that's taking place there's a there's a strange connection that we have to electronics and ultimately to an artificial creation artificial intelligence whatever you want to call the artificial light life something that's created by carbon-based beings cellular beings that isn't cellular but also acts like life that this may be the future of life that we are so connected to the idea of Flesh and Blood and Bone but maybe this is just a temporary situation until we transition or if not us transition till it surpasses us and this is the next stage of life but this stage has no need for all the human and biological reward systems are in place that made sure that we survive when the ego or fee or emotions

► 01:24:24

no need for that that it will just exist and maintain its equilibrium as this this new form of life and it this is the future of life in the universe and it will get there maybe it'll only be a hundred two hundred years from now but the. That's what exists all throughout the cosmos so there's no need to Peacock there's no need to show our signal in the sky and that it just exists in this form I agree and I wouldn't be surprised exactly as you just said the base that you evolve to a point a rapidly while you just don't create a signature

► 01:25:10

I just move maintains what has no well there's no motivation right like it doesn't our motivations are all so weird right we have these biological motivation to survive and you know there's motivations to conquer and to innovate and to spread our genes and to move into new territories but if you didn't have biology if you were you existed completely from man-made materials over from materials found on Earth and that this new form of life is crazy out of that I wouldn't have those unless you program them and why would you do that it isn't too cuz we don't know what comes with Missy is the casing machine which is what you're talking about something that can go and maybe that's the moon on Miles and she's a living thing I suppose

► 01:26:10

efficient level of intelligence that it actually he's conscious and all these things that we talked about this a emergent property that that has to emerge if you got something that's intelligent enough to and replicates itself and living right I don't know the answer but it's worth considering that this thing this emotion meaning love and fear in all those things happen when you are intelligent I don't know the answer to that but it could possibly be and does Consciousness have to have a local origin like doesn't have to come from a thing like if you think about cellular communication. If you send me if you're in England can you send me a video from your phone and it reaches my phone it's getting to me through

► 01:27:10

space is going through the sky it's like literally from a device not connected by any wires or anyting it's coming to me if if there's a possibility to create some sort of global intelligence through electronic that's nonlocal one piece of it falls off does the same it is it just repairs itself or figures itself out but it's the same Consciousness existing on a global scale through some sort of an electronic Network that instead of the with the idea that you and I have that Brian and Joe are till you have your mind I have my mind and we eat we exist as intelligent being separate from each other but instead of that that all of it is connected and that all of it is something that we can't even conceive because of our brains are too crude like trying to explain to you know Australia pithecus what a satellite is

► 01:28:08

yeah yes to make you think about brains and they are ultimately what are they they just a distribution network of cells can I buy New Orleans and funniest things that are autonomous in a sentence and they communicating with each other and principal just not understood why I think there's something weird happened that there's nothing other than what is a live by the laws of nature as we understand them so eliminating shoe sole being some sort of a Divine thing that's inside the housing of the body I would say we can rule that I actually I've always lived in the past how do you roll a backwoods in the following men

► 01:29:07

drums and protons and neutrons if I haven't sold it because I'm moving my hand around so whatever it is it's something that interacts very strongly with matter but if you look at the history of particle physics the study of matter we spend we spent decades making high Precision measurements of how to behave and interacts and we look for it for example for V force of nature show me the full force is Gravity the two nuclear forces call the weak and strong nuclear forces and electromagnetism and that's what we know exists and we look for another one with the old high-precision if we don't see any evidence of it so I would climb

► 01:29:59

that we know how matter interacts at these energies the room temperature and I'll be something else to interact with matter strongly then I would say that it's ruled out by experiment at least he's extremely successful and you would have to jump through a lot of Hoops to come up with the theory of some stuff that we wouldn't have seen by me Vybz at a time after interacts that is present in our bodies and presumably believe in the soul you want it to exist outside when you die you still want nothing to be that you might believe in ghosts and things like that so that means that interact strongly with the matter that is u n

► 01:30:54

because information there has to be an energy source that last information to assist in the patented postulating something that interacts with lights because of if you think a ghost is the soul then it's something that people see sometimes that means interacts with light but we know how light interacts and we ruled out anything but the most subtle further interaction I claim Sheraton infinite monkey cage book this radio said I do but he ended up when I said something

► 01:31:53

so if you so this energy that's interacting with matter even if you are not moving at all if you're just thinking it's interacting with the matter that encompasses your mind or your brain or your nerves your neurons that it's something in there that's interacting with matter what do you like it or not so even just a simple thought process or a dream is still something it's interacting with Matt like your body's interact with matter as you're moving your arm but even if you're not moving if you're just thinking and you're completely still was not totally possible cuz your hearts beating in your breathing and all that stuff but if somehow or another you were able to isolate just the thought the thoughts themselves are still interacting with matter because they're interacting with the brain itself so there's something in there

► 01:32:53

an end and I would say there isn't this version is that the brain itself in the body the physical the spiritual self you are merely an antenna that's too many into the the the great consciousness of the universe but then you have to answer what we know what we made of so we know how those popsicles. Anyway interact with that stuff cuz we only just interact with its winds right extremely strongly with it make its interaction between bro

► 01:33:53

interaction with matter but we don't see it in all our Precision measurements may be absolute space measure it

► 01:34:16

right it's about food for whatever reason for people there is some incredible motivation to find a divine

► 01:34:28

something or another that's there's something greater than this physical being that there's something what do you think that is like what is that compulsion I need goes to the

► 01:34:42

the hearts of this question what it means to be human so I would say that being human the answer to the answer to the meaning of animus it would be we are small finite beings right we should just clusters of atoms as we said before very rare but we understand roughly have that how they came to be and we have a limited amount of time because of the nature of the laws of nature for Beados to be immortal that immortality by the laws of physics but also what's interesting about if you look at the basic physics of the universe come from The Big Bang the way out today then the physics is driven by the fact that the Universe began in an extremely old

► 01:35:42

Midstate through the very highly ordered system and it is tending towards a more disordered system at the moment. Call the second law of Thermodynamics things go to shit strongly suspect in the process of going from older to disorder complexity emojis naturally for a brief. Of time so it's a natural part of the evolution of the universe that you got. Inside windows complexity in the universe the stars and planets and galaxies in life and civilization exists now in spite of the fact the universe is decaying existence in lots of picture is necessarily finite the necessarily time-limited and it is

► 01:36:42

remarkable thing that that complexity is got so far that there are things in the universe that can think and feel and explore it and I think that is Van said you want an answer to the meaning of it all is that you all parts of the universe because of the way the laws of nature work you are allowed to exist but you're allowed to exist for temporary the first small amount of time and it possibly infinite Universe one of the biggest mind-blowing moments I think of my limited comprehension of what it means to be a living being was when I found out that carbon and all the stuff that makes us has to come out of a Dying star like then that alone that there's is very strange cycle of these enormous Fireballs that Forge the material that makes Brian Cox like what that that one alone that there

► 01:37:42

some strange Loop of of of biological life that comes from Stars which is like the most Elemental thing that we can observe we see these things in the sky we see the sun in the sky it's this all-powerful ball of fire and that that is where the building blocks for a person come from is it from the carbon atoms in a body that you're right they all got made in Styles because there were none of it the Big Bang there's only hydrogen and helium lithium nothing else and so it was only a mixture stuff for many stars in your body

► 01:38:42

we have we have we were the ingredients and procedure assembled in the house of long-dead stars over billions of years and have assembled until spontaneously that can think and feel and explore and their structures will Decay away again at some point and if I left so so that we are we exist in This Magnificent Universe why do you want anymore but I think two people in a lot of people aren't aware of all the all the information right and then I think on top of it for some people it's just

► 01:39:19

it's so overwhelming this this concept of 13.8 billion years of everything to get to this point and we're at right now it's so overwhelming that they want to simplify it and want to put it into some sort of affable structure something where it's something that's very common and similar and familiar I agree but I think that's the the the the journey that we go on do the real treasure I think it is in that Jenny trying to face the incomprehensible that realization that it's almost impossible to believe that we exist that's that's that's a wonderful thing yeah that's what I decide to simplify it because you don't want to face that you don't have face being

► 01:40:19

Tennessee that are in front of us and you don't want to face those stories as you said that that you lick your finger and its ingredients of multiple stop that. Said to me you joyous and powerful thing to think about yes I think you'll know if you don't want to face that I think the distribution of information has changed so radically over the last couple hundred years and particularly over the last 20 that you're seeing these Trends now we're more people are inclined to abandon a lot of the even if you remain religious or remain you keep a thought or belief in a higher power people are more inclined to entertain these concepts of Science and to take in the understanding of what has been observed and documented and written about who among Scholars and academics and there's

► 01:41:19

or there's more people accepting that if you look at the number of agnostic people now as opposed to 20 30 years ago it's it's it's rising it's changing and I think there's also because of you because of Neil deGrasse Tyson and you know Sean Carroll and all these other people that are public intellectuals are discussing this kind of stuff people like myself have a far greater understanding of this then I think people did 30-40 years ago and that trend is continuing I think it a very good direction we should say is that signs we don't know all the places so we don't know where the laws of night she came from we don't know why the universe began in the way that it did if you need a new beginning very very highly old it which is ultimately actually mentioning often points right

► 01:42:19

recycled Arrow of time is that in the past the universe was really all of it and it's getting more disorders state of older the star of the universe which is really the reason that we exist that's the reason for the universe began in a particular form we don't know why that was so we will probably find out at some point and it'll be something to do with the laws of nature but it's science discipline of science people are you not right this is what we find out within which if you want to philosophize all you want to do the ology all you want to you want to ask these deep questions about why we're here you have to operate within that framework because he's just now

► 01:43:19

is stuff we discovered stuff that someone made of fight with we we we understand the physics of stars so we understand that the South build the carbon oxygen and we know how they did it we can see it cuz I said before we can if you look back in time and if you look back in time you see less carbon and less oxygen so we have a direct action button the earliest Universe there wasn't any because we can see it the night we say that there is some and we know how it was made so I think it's important to be humble when you talkin about signs and you know it's not it's not able to answer questions at the moment is not able to answer even whether the universe had a beginning on.

► 01:44:19

even though that I got to talk to him I was asking you to tell it to some Bishops in the UK about cosmology and I said I said I got some questions so if the universe is eternal and it might be it might not get it. That's a good question I didn't have an answer but we might so I think my point is that these other human at decisive and natural two religions say all across the world in all different cultures but I think that in the 21st century religion needs to operate within that framework if it's going to be going to offer right there a still

► 01:45:19

great Mysteries and it is appropriate to think about what it means to be human and I'll give you my view of what it means but but I don't think the problem comes when you when you get your theology of your philosophy. Is used to deny some thanks to measurement know these things and measurements we measured it and opinion between the distance from LA to New York then you can have an opinion on that but whatever then Say It Isn't So it's just stuff it doesn't mean you can't be spiritual and you count the really just outside it doesn't mean you can't believe in God dogs Oddity by signs some stuff that I love the way you communicate this because it takes into consideration Human Nature

► 01:46:19

and like I love Dawkins he's fantastic I think he's very very very valuable but he likes to call people idiots and the problem with that is people go fuck you you're an idiot it like is it a natural inclination when you insult people to argue back and to sort of dig their heels in and you don't do that and I think that's very important and I think that it got like talking just gets frustrated from all these years of debates of people who are uneducated or saying ridiculous things he's a bit of a curmudgeon and only seems to be softening as he's getting older. State the Frontline scientist and his frustrations are you two having said that he is actually because

► 01:47:19

boat in the US actually threatened some of the countries we talked about. Your income inequality know this thing is Justified but he seems to me that there a Goodwill who need to spend together to diffuse the countries like the United States United States United and everybody you got the sense of belonging and so I've stopped actually picking I ice it for example quite enjoy picking fights with Deepak Chopra on Twitter is Emma crazy stuff

► 01:48:12

relative to he's a well-meaning person so I started trying to sleep, I feel logical framework but they mean well most of them so we need to defuse some of this anger because otherwise it will conceive everyone yes I've I've tried very hard to evolve in that respect and just get better at communicating ideas and get better at understanding how people receive those ideas and I think that's it there's it's easy to get lazy and too insulting to

► 01:49:12

comedian humor I want to entertain people that's I think in terms of like discussing ideas especially that are so personal to people like religion Ivory examined the way I interpret these ideas no way I are talk about these things changed into the receipt and rub it often Heimer did them in 53 I think it's fascinating you can you believe it was I wanted to type something else

► 01:50:12

58 / can you buy more time but it sounds crazy but he was basically but you didn't you talks about thinking like a scientist it which means thinking in the way that nature full size you to think can be valuable in other areas self the great thing about science for the building you can hit the ground and he said so if you think about it for example quantum mechanics so sometimes

► 01:51:12

Tasca like an electron sometimes the answer is a point like object May behave like a billiard ball thing all the time but sometimes it's a nature for CG to hold both ideas in your head at the same time you know this is a complete picture of the objects a description of an electron and he said that's the valuable thing that you don't need to know this stuff but if you want to learn to think it's valuable to be forced whole different ideas in your head at the same time it's really teach me not to be an absolutist trade teaching you the example uses this cuz I think it was had problems with my coffee and they said you can either be you can be a communist in his definition would be that you think the needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few ISO Society is all that matters like to be a living

► 01:52:12

right on the phone so I can save it to the End by you think that the individual is the only thing that matters and that's it but I actually have cause to have a functioning Society you need to make sure that we can wait one way or the other but you need to hold both ideas in your head at the same time he said that the most valuable things about science into modes of thought that valuable that's what we talkin about it was an absolute Physicians always just a building codes of subsets of what's actually happening in the world by being an extremist yeah you got to hold all these views in your head. I find that so often on this podcast because I talked with people I agree with and disagree with and I always try to put myself in the head of the person that I disagree with I will always try to figure out how they're coming to those conclusions or where they're coming from and I think it's

► 01:53:12

it's so important to not be married to ideas I got a conversation with someone about this and he said like you sometimes you change your opinions a lot I go yeah I do I do a flip flop politician like I'm not flip-flopping I'm thinking I'm not sure I'm not sure I like I I will have one opinion on a thing whether it's a controversial thing like Universal basic income not change my mind a hundred percent two weeks and then it seems they need motivation then and I don't know I bounce around with these things but I've tried really hard as I've gotten older to have less absolute opinions the great physicist similar similar

► 01:54:12

a surprise I think that they were still alive cuz I thought I'd given to the politicians got some bomb would destroy everything I didn't think the political system with controlled he said that the most valuable thing and he said he said in that statement because science is satisfactory philosophy of ignorance by the statement is the open door the open Channel he called it so if we were to make progress we have to understand that we don't know everything I'm have to leave things to Future Generations then we can be upset and then we can change our minds and he said that that's great what last line of come exactly what he says but he said it seems like he's a Jew to use scientist to communicate the value of uncertainty in the value of freedom of thought to all future Generations that's the point

► 01:55:12

install means freedom to change your mind that we don't know how to do it. Full of change every 4 years will change the president years will change the president why because the president doesn't know how to do it they will be someone that's a bit comes along to give me a list of things that I love so much about Bertrand Russell and about five of us how human they were they were very human me finding like to play the Bongos and chasing girls and Russell was addicted to Tobacco he would talk about how he wouldn't fly unless he could smoke like he had to get us was back when they had smoking sections on airplanes in the ad is pipe and he just refused.

► 01:56:12

fly without to back up and couldn't imagine being without tobacco so strange a brilliant guy to be addicted to such a gross thing and existence joyous by what the job of the scientist says it's too it's to stand on the edge of the known because you're a research scientist has nothing to do with not knowing that it was one thing I I really do think how do we begin to patch a country's back up again one of the reasons I think an education is the value of uncertainty of not knowing which is not weak right to not know not to know and that's one of the problems with religion is to

► 01:57:12

say that you know when you do not heard to say that you have absolute truth and absolute knowledge of something when it can't really exist causes trouble did you see ex machina Days Later another new movie are you scared of artificial life artificial intelligence and scared the shit out of me when he talked about it like he he talks about it like we're in the opening scene of a science fiction movie where he's trying to warn people and then they don't listen to to the genius and it goes south so it depends on this

► 01:58:12

the real science he lived in a few weeks ago and they straighten that out at the moment Shrine David generalize which is like what we talked about earlier human light capability things we haven't got them how many miles away is intelligence is expert systems in very focused systems that do particular things you can prescribe them in a limited economic sense cuz they going to displace people's jobs are actually interested in this panel discussion we had it's going to be like what you might call middle-class jobs in the UK so why College UPS Universal basic income to sort of replace money that's so you've lost because there will be no jobs for all these people otherwise we have just a mask attached

► 01:59:12

CitiBank at reading contracts and things like that that kind of intermediate level that usually escapes so you're right one of the answers used to text okay you can have it right about what you pay the robot the same as you pay a person and then that money goes into funding Universal basic income of something like that but all the experts I spoke to agreed that the idea of its every-night in style general intelligence taking over the world is miles away and then it's a whiles we might stop thinking about the regulation it's not going to happen soon is the general point I think so I would disagree with him

► 02:00:11

on that I think I think it's too far in the future for the moment I think it's just cuz they can he would say they could take out of power grids not trying to stuff well it's these Concepts that are really hard to visualize like Sora kurzweil's idea of the exponential increase of Technology leading us to a point in the near future we're going to be able to download your Consciousness into a computer you talk to computer experts it like this no way we're miles away from that convinced that what's going to happen is that as technology increases it can increase his in this

► 02:01:11

probably exponential way where we really can't visualize it we can't even imagine how much advancement will take place over 50 years but in those 50 years something's going to happen that radical changes our idea of what's possible I think he'll on shares its ideas well that it's going to sneak up on us so quickly they want it does go live it'll be too late welcome place I think the regulations framework because you said for the more realistic problem with these people jobs are going to get displaced but they said the judge the politician did the job of the Innovation System is to create jobs faster than it destroys them so you've always got to remember that the government has regulates is if you're going to be Technologies into the marketplace at destroy people's jobs it is your responsibility to find a way of replacing those jobs all compensate in those people as you said

► 02:02:11

can Soda Springs human being those that people need some meaning like they just giving them income I think is just going to

► 02:02:20

it means my speculation but it can create Mass to spare even provide them you provide them with food and shelter they need people need things to do so it's there's going to be some sort of a demand to find meaning for people get them occupations give them something some tasks let's it seems to be one of the critical parts of being a person we need things to do that we find meaning in it like you were talking about where the only things that we know of that have meaning that fine meaning and Cher meaning and believe in that we're going to need something like that if Universal basic income comes along I don't think it's going to be enough to just feed people in the house them they didn't want something to do if you know a person is a you're doing something for an occupation in this is your identity then all sudden it occupation becomes irrelevant cuz computer doesn't faster cheaper quicker these people are going to have this incredible feel

► 02:03:20

Despair and just not being valuable in creating an idea is you don't need to do stuff the job that you don't really want to do in the factory right you can do the thing that he is the best. But I agree it's not very utopian view interest like that if everybody went on to make pottery and painting and doing all these different things they've always really wanted to do and their needs are met by you know the universal basic income money they receive every month but toy there's a lot of people I don't think have those desires our needs and to sort of force than on to them at age 55 or whatever it's going to be seems to be very very

► 02:04:20

felt hungry but I think that in concept at least it's inevitable that we do have some sort of an artificial intelligence that resembles us or that resemble something like ex machina if people choose to create that we choose to created in our own image but that's very Godlike isn't it God created us in his own image

► 02:05:08

I think we'll know it when I don't think I was going to do accidentally so I don't think it just suddenly going to be upon those I think we will see you we will see ourselves getting acquiring that capability will see ourselves little clothes will see their systems beginning to think about 200 years ago if you wanted a photograph of something you want to picture something you had a draught

► 02:05:35

there was no photography 200 years ago just think of that is almost inconceivable no automobiles no photography and what was automobile. Maybe there's some sort of the machines that drove people around write something close earlier than that right you go back 500 years you have almost nothing it's crazy it's so vast it so fast I mean and then this what we're doing right now that there's people right now in their car that are streaming this so they're in their car and they're listening as a driving on the road maybe they have a Tesla if they have an electric car they're driving down the road streaming to people talking where it's ones and zeros that are broken down and is some audible form and you can listen to it in your car that is

► 02:06:25

bananas I agree we've been quick so quick I think I remember it being that will send me the web why did you say I was involved in that unit in the University environment with email and all that kind of stuff that you can have a web browser that just the only sites that would I would NASA and I think master I did one of the alley sites and son was very early clown when did you become involved with CERN

► 02:07:12

so that would be I started doing particle physics in 95 and when was the when did the Large Hadron Collider go live

► 02:07:26

2007 thank you for taking that long but it's a tremendously successful thing know that this how large is it how long is the large is a Sim is 27 km 16 miles and it's a circular sort of a building basically Mainland France and Switzerland accelerates protons around in a circle that both ways that won't, because when we want to go to the way around 11 cuz I said very close to speed of light 99.9999 sensory the light across the beams and Clyde and in those collisions

► 02:08:26

present lessen the billionth of a second after the big bang so we know that physics so going back in the oxygen we can trace that story back way beyond the time whenever protons and neutrons do I never quarks and gluons around and go all the way back in the Higgs boson doing its thing back then so we can see all that physics in the lab so that's why we have some a lot of confidence in that story it's so fascinating that they were able to talk someone into funding that that they got a bunch of people together that you were able to explain to politicians and you know regular people what what you're trying to do is a great example of how are you get something done with the night when son was established 53 or 54 and then it was Bill at 4

► 02:09:26

second world war Churchill yeah you are at the end of the war and it was realized that did the only way forward for you it was collaboration to rebuild the scientific base and an extra piece for peaceful purposes and I said what sets up as an international collaboration in Europe initially with that political ideal that it was it was explore nature just tested it freely and the peaceful peaceful means peaceful reasons so that the member states are bound together by treaty and they pay is small and relatively small amount into Sun every year we should have sent you that GDP and that's the money that I used to build the experiments on Bill the accelerates is so it's very hard to get out of it and you wouldn't really won't see me because it's a small country and send your money to build

► 02:10:26

it just takes his money and basically saved up from planet itself because he's got a regular streaming money it can do it so I can say we're going to build this machine and it will take eight years cuz we've got, building 8 years and we know how much money we've got so we can do it and it's a lesson that mean that the reason that you asked, why did I say failed is because it's a problem you have in the US with the funding system as you've seen in the last few weeks and it's open to political maneuvering going to end things can be shut down and take to stream funding small from each country and so you can do these projects in the one of the US that was during the Clinton Administration is that what it was yeah it was was it clean to me it was closed down by Congress in a very slim boats and it was it in Texas so it was it was one of those things where you got states fighting for money and it was half built

► 02:11:26

the thing is bigger than it was supposed to go live is being built has it been running but for the the half-built part is it useless now or can they think they're going to charge it up again that's the thing that you can do these wonderful things but not a lot of money if you just do it over many years in a stable funding commit to doing it to get in part asleep

► 02:12:23

that's why the UK plays in and spent same picture in the same two friends and so there's not a lot is it bad for billion dollars a year of something which is what university has so if you just said about the medical imaging technology that we use CO2 comes from said it's pioneered the use of these very high field magnets engineering at the edge generates spin-offs tonight to the field as cancer treatment so-called Hydro I'm being therapy so you got a brain treatment is quite likely that you'll have one of these targeted Costco beam therapist which is like very highly targeted cell chemotherapy radiation you can talk in the beam into your had an attack that Yuma

► 02:13:23

the most today but they came from the spin-offs of these big experiments at the edge of our capability are always immense which is why they were funding it is very low levels but it's not just the knowledge is the engineering expertise that there is a practical application for every every day like it's just fine just the Higgs boson particle that you guys have discovered what what is quark-gluon plasma see Piven clocks and put on set clock to the building blocks of protons and neutrons and gluons the things that stick them together

► 02:14:23

boxing up clock and sunset be the constituents the protons neutrons we should have constituents about Atomic nuclei very high temperatures than the price of the neutrons. Then you end up with soup of quarks and gluons and that's a plasma and it's insanely dense right so you got that so we've been exploring that bike ride protons together we can lead nuclei together or sell the nuclei together at the LEC soup synuclein Masa if you like very hot in the clear mats to explore that physics that. Nuclear Physics wow and I was reading something about the the weight of of that stuff. Like a sugar cube like what what is it what is the actual weight

► 02:15:19

but depends are dense is a neutron star material which is 100 million or something it was one of the things after the Discover they were talking about the massive weight of 41 Plasma in almost incomprehensible ahead is 40 billion oh my God a cubic centimeter Woodway 40 billion tons

► 02:16:04

good Lord I didn't know that they doing right now closed for engineering and upgrades upgrades as many collisions per second does you can generate and then they have a collision Bunch Crossing lace we can bury it but it said something like twenty-five nanoseconds to the more collisions per second you can get the more chance you have of making interest in things like eggs Popsicles or whatever else may be out there waiting to be discovered that it's possible that the Pascal's out there that we haven't yet discovered that could be within the reach of the LHC and if this one that was in Texas had gotten built and it was more powerful than the LHC you have even more

► 02:17:04

opportunity to do something like that now Wendy's things are created by these collisions how long do they last fractions of a second so that the General Physics impossible physics is the most massive it is on the most things that can be cut into the faster it'll do that so basically the heavy things Decay into light things I said the only the stable popsicles of things like electrons and some of the clocks and video clocks and I'm stable things to Decay very fast registering its existence like what is what is being used to measure it so what you see if you Collide by protons together and price on the stuff in the ugly ones and the clocks so you got a big mess best of all

► 02:18:04

so nice to be soloed of popsicles a spray and we should not interested but sometimes when you win a couple of things together and I can make something interesting like it's clogged or Higgs particle what's a top Quark is up and down charm and strange bottom and top charm and strange we literally in the moment we discovered them someone said that's really strange so the up-and-down are one family and then the Charming stranger to the family in the top and bottom of the third family and for some reason so the clocks electrons but for some reason they're two for the coffees at that is what your identical in every way except the heavier

► 02:19:00

what is the charm and strange clock in at the end a heavy electron called a mule and then it says itself in the bottom, and another happy electron call the tile and that's it so that this weird pain that we don't understand so it seems like you really needed that the first family to build the universe happy ones Decay into the light ones with the points when you make them turn around very long I just answer your question is that when they Decay they threw the Decay product so we take a photograph of cascade of popsicles that comes from these hevea popsicles decaying and the trick is to patch you all up to see you two trying to work out what everything came from wow

► 02:19:49

doubt when they 5 find these unexpected particles then what happens then there's the study of them then there's the then everybody gets together and go okay what the hell is that what is that what we do level electrons for example and the up-and-down quacks like a mess from that interaction with the Higgs that's why they massive that's another reason we exist back we wouldn't exist if it wasn't mass in the universe and the Higgs is ultimately responsible for that mess I keep the generation that the fundamental basic seed is it is from is from the Higgs

► 02:20:49

going to study it so you want to make a lot of them so you can take a lot of pictures of in study a lot and say exactly how it does that and so that's what we doing the way. Popsicle behaves so we can understand the laws of nature not. He's the laws of nature how it is Pascal's behaving and what are they doing this but it is possible that some new form of some new form of particle something else could be discovered we almost strongly with the master answer which we made and the stars are made is almost certain that that some form of popsicle

► 02:21:49

observations Way galaxies rotate and interaction even the oldest like in the universe Cosmic microwave background radiation received the signature that stuff in that lights as well so we think there's some of the possible out there and I'm to be honest we thought we would have decided today I think that I like to see who got lots of theories that make predictions for the different popsicles that would interact weekly with normal matter either a bit too massive so many more energy to make them we just haven't quite got enough are we not making enough of them often enough to see them with your other reasons for a great and we also look for them by the way I'm directly so we have experiments in the mountains wait we bury them in the mountains so the cosmic rays from space don't interfere

► 02:22:49

I'm looking for the rare occasions when these. Maisel popsicles bump into the passcode of Mesa in the detector swimming without Masa as far as we can tell but interactive buddy weekly with this Masa so doesn't bump into it's very often so we looking for the direct detection of it I'm looking to make those popsicles LHC so it's everywhere but it doesn't interact with us strong laser Nutrena so we do not about neutrinos with detected those and that there is something like

► 02:23:32

60 billion per centimeter squared / second passing through your head now from the Sun pretty much occasionally one of them bumps into something and we can detect those cuz there's so many of them and the ideas that dark matter and Compasses an enormous percentage of the universe and the number is 25% of the universe that 5% of the universe is normal match the stars in the dark Manor

► 02:24:32

does so I get to work before then walks in the forms and stretches and it very precisely tells you given the stuff that you put in it how much does it stretch and how does it stretch and the measurement we have is how I was stretching so so we are spending and how the expansion rate is changing so we have very precise measurements of that so that we can use this Theory to tell us what's in it given that we know what I was responding to that stuff that's how we discovered Dark Energy so we know that the universe is expansion rate is increasing

► 02:25:32

we can look at what sort of stuff and how much of that stuff you need to put in the universe was first proposed one of my friends got the Nobel Prize for that and then how do you make cheese making measurements Supernova the light from Supernova explosions which is so bright but you can say that is stretched in the wrong way so we we look at the stretch of light as it travels Across the Universe and the universe expanding is stretchy the lights that change the color and he knows he can see which which said that the universe that the expansion rate is speeding up this being speeding up friend thinks of like seven billion years also he's been speeding up

► 02:26:32

so he thought they've done something wrong cuz it's so you checked it and checked it and checked it and he couldn't find anything wrong so we did what a good scientist publish date so that somebody else and he said that you thought it would be the end of his career that you can't see what you've done wrong then you publish it a good scientist will be really happy they said not to be wrong cuz we've learned something now being discussed what was the initial reaction to it

► 02:27:32

Scott name is called the cosmological constant and that sin equations and I initially because Einstein equations strongly suggest that the universe is expanding or Contracting and not just sat there so even before we had anything that the universe is just not static and it actually really strongly suggest that has a beginning but he must have been smaller in the past right how everything was going to close together at the same time in the early 1920s before we even knew there were other galaxies beyond the Milky Way and they know Sister the the equation suggest the universe might be stretching and so he wrote

► 02:28:32

find said you were Theory suggests that was a very good answer yesterday cuz I thought if everything is expanding so is a Belgian priest so I think about this but I think that he was more predisposed to 12 equations with telling him because of the beginning and origin for priest is really a nice thing cuz it tells you the creation of Adam and Einstein trying to get this food turn into the equation which is the almost the stretch sheets of this I believe it's all if it's all kind of contract to know something can I put something in to make it to balance it all out so we can be tunnel

► 02:29:23

shiny count you count make a saddle that way but eats a tried it they took it out and called it is biggest blunder taking it out or at least some people think I really want to have a stable he missed while equations was screaming his other theory was screaming something which is that no the universe expands or contracts and he missed it right I think that's probably what he meant by biggest blunt and then later in the 1990s hits but it's really small tiny tiny still dominates in the universe

► 02:30:14

I didn't look at it will dominate even more in the future so we think that we need any of us that will continue to expend essentially doubling in size of a fixed time scale which is about 20 billion years everything every 20 billion years into the future forever unless something happens the universe will continue to expand and double in size but nobody knows what it is a massive problems in theoretical physics and what is being done to try to get a better grasp of what it is you like it Einstein's equations and just really simple so it looks like it's something that may be a prophecy of space itself

► 02:31:10

don't know what it looks like if a simple thing it doesn't change over time I'm just say so so so it requires a cool Advanced as well inside people of trying very hard to do that it's so crazy when you go from Galileo to Modern theoretical physics if they're still in the midst of this understanding of what all the stuff is

► 02:31:39

yeah there's a fundamental in difficult problem to the origin and evolution of the universe is this stuff with you talk about the stuff in the universe that's what the Galaxy studies Studies have the stuff behaves right now these are it's very theoretical right there trying to wrap the wrap their minds around what this is and what the properties of an RT do you envision a time where you can actually physically measure this and then have a real clear understanding of what it is when it's probably I don't know for example we should probably not right but it's on Higgs particle so the Higgs particle which we've discovered in can measure has some properties that we think the dark energy

► 02:32:36

would need and also this inflation I mentioned way back to the start of the universe has some of the properties that can do that as well so for example therapy flea trying to link them so we do you have an observation of the Higgs we can study that so all they linked don't know but it could be that we can study it that even though it's a very small week if it could be that direct access food that there's something really profound we don't understand about the way that stuff in particular the Higgs actually interact with space and time so very naive Lee the Hague should blow the universe pause just very naively this loads of energy in a very small amount of space a huge amounts of energy in the Higgs field but it doesn't do anything about him give mashed two things it doesn't seem to me it doesn't directly

► 02:33:36

fact space but everything else that you put in space directly affects it so kind of issues we don't get it yet it's just so they might sell the other two inflation eggs stuck in a jeep something how many people worldwide would you estimate are trying to grasp this and and working on this

► 02:34:12

good question I don't know I mean it's a it's probably tens if that it's time to get sun and popsicle physicist and a theoretical physicist cuz it's it's so important

► 02:34:27

to press to get an understanding of what what's going on but yet so outside of the grasp of most people putting me like I'm listening to you talk about this I'm like thank God it's people like you think whatever thank thank works because people like you out there that are doing this but it's almost like you speaking another language it's so strange to me was very new stuff from when I was at school we haven't discovered the top clock we thought that he might be there but we had no idea what it was in my career we're moving quite fast and get your rights of the most fundamental questions but wiser ultimately why Xenoverse the way it is an even possibly why is there Universe right but we were away from not yet but if we're ever going to answer that

► 02:35:27

show me by doing stuff like this and this is all addressed in this life show that you're doing this world and live show nothing comes with knowledge but the terrifying ride with us I think it is we said that it raises questions makes quite Vivid questions that we all have about you know what are we doing today I really been into calsaga Neal's Used to try this if you try to link it to things that people think about naturally that's why people are fascinated by this stuff because they do you actually think about it going to be with the right now so the right fax even thinking about how did I come to exist

► 02:36:27

what was I passed in the bees bees are Universal questions I think we are and the way you're doing this with your live show you were saying that you have an enormous visual aspect to it we have we have the biggest screen we can get in every venue at Wembley Arena and it is wide whatever in North America that we just fill it with screen as much as we can get the graphics I have actually I don't understand why is the reason

► 02:37:27

display let lower than Chris Nolan Kohl's flyer today they use General CBC they coated it into that the graphic software so they can write Trace lights around black holes and you can move the camera around the black hole in Tracy's away all the light moves around it to remember those amazing get that guy conscious black hole in a simulation simulation of Einstein's theory tells is a black hole look like and so I can use that talk about what happens when you fall into a black hole what would you see what can someone fall in and you can explain all that you did Einstein's theory kind of a well-known idea if you never see me fall in time slowed

► 02:38:27

at my time slow down as you watch me so in the end I just slow down and slow down to slow down and then I get Frozen on the Event Horizon and just fade away is an image reddening image on the Event Horizon so time passes at different rates As you move close to the black hole in fire away because space and time of distorted by the mass of the black hole and I talked about all that but incredible image which we had to sell it because my screen so big so we need a special machine to play it you can buy the most expensive Mac Pro will not play this stuff so I love that Australian you have to have a special video play at the play the damn thing was just like a series of CPUs all ties together and some sort of a super-sized is

► 02:39:27

20 gig video files are you coming to Los Angeles with this makes the end of me I'm there I'm here at 11 much stuff we can fit into this picture you looking good that's awesome man thank you so much for doing this I really appreciate you appreciate everything you doing so awesome. Thank you

► 02:40:27

and I loved it last time anybody else going to be very strange now but thank you again really appreciate I can't wait to see your show thank you so much thank you thank you bye everybody thank you everyone for tuning in to the show and thank you to our sponsors thank you to meet Mondays for providing me the most amazing underwear that I've ever worn the ones I wear everyday you can try them out and you can get 15% off your first pair with free shipping and a 100% satisfaction guarantee when you go to meet undies.com Rogan that's meundies.com Rogan and thank you also to 23andMe genetic testing health and ancestry kit ladies and gentlemen you will get 90 report on your health traits ancestry and more all sorts of groovy information

► 02:41:27

bided you but just spit spit in a tube send it to them it's easy as hell you can get your 23andMe health and ancestry kit today at 23andme.com Rogan that's the number to 3 and me.com Rogan again that's 23andme.com Rogan and last but not least we are brought to you by Squarespace the host of Joe Rogan, and an amazing resource if you need a website you can build it yourself you don't need to hire someone anymore you can do it with are easy to use drag-and-drop user interface and makeup banging website in the best part you can try it for free go to squarespace.com Joe for a free trial then when you're ready to launch use the offer code Joe to save 10% off your first purchase of a website or domain thank you everyone for tuning in and we'll see you soon bye bye big kiss